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Cultural Communication Essay

2077 words - 9 pages

a. Introduction
i. Culture is mainly an unspoken, nonverbal phenomenon because most aspects of one’s culture are learned through observation and imitation rather than by explicit verbal instruction
ii. \nonverbal communication is composed of both biologically determined and cultural-specific components
iii. Nonverbal messages serve a variety of functions
1. Culture shapes display rules of when, how, what, and with whom certain nonverbal expressions should be revealed or repressed
b. Nonverbal codes
iv. Physical appearance
2. Relatively stable physical features of human beings such as gender, height, weight, skin color ...view middle of the document...

Haptics, or tactile communication
11. Nonverbal messages conveyed through touch
12. Vast differences in the amount of touch, type of touch, location, etc. among cultures
f. Italians, Greeks, and Hispanics touch more and are more comfortable with touch compared to English, French, Dutch, U.S
g. Touch is more embarrassing and discomforting for Japanese and Chinese
h. Touching an Arab with the left hand is a social insult
ix. Vocalic, or paralanguage
13. All nonverbal elements of voice
x. Olfactics
14. Interpersonal communication mediated by smell
15. Our body associates certain smells with different feelings and emotions. Smells are also powerful at triggering our memory, with certain smells being tied to different emotions, people, or events.
c. Dimensions of intercultural nonverbal communication (context, identity, power, gender, uncertainty, time, and immediacy)
xi. Context
16. The degree to which communication is explicit and verbal versus implicit and nonverbal
i. High context cultures (e.g., Japan) - meanings are internalized and there is a large emphasis nonverbal codes
i. Typically found in Asia
j. Low context cultures (such as U.S.) – messages are communicated through explicit codes and usually via verbal channels
ii. Lowest context cultures Swiss, German, U.S.
iii. Logical, analytical, linear, and action oriented
17. Four principles of context
k. Verbal communication and other explicit codes are more prevalent in low-context cultures such as the United States and Northern Europe
l. High context cultures do not value verbal communication in the same way that low context cultures do
m. High context cultures are more reliant on and tuned into nonverbal communication
n. In high context cultures, interactants expect more than in low context cultures
xii. Individualism and collectivism (Identity)
18. Individualistic cultures emphasize I-identity
o. Value personal rights and freedoms
p. The most individualistic countries are U.S., Australia, Great Britain, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, and Sweden
19. Collectivist cultures emphasize We-identity
q. More group oriented
r. The least individualistic countries are Venezuela, Colombia, Pakistan, Peru, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Chile, and Hong Kong
20. Every aspect of nonverbal communication is affected by the degree of individualism and collectivism in a culture
s. Proxemics – individualistic cultures are more distant
t. Kinesics – more coordinated in collectivist cultures

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