This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Cross Cultural Motivation Essay

2800 words - 12 pages

Cross-Cultural Motivation and Self-Determination
Susan McGilloway
Walden University
Self-Determination Theory

For decades researchers have studied human motivation and the process of developing self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1980, 1985, 1991; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Deci & Ryan, 2008; Vallarand, Pelletier, and Koestner, 2008). Human motivation is the drive to change personal or public behaviors on an individual or societal level. Self-determination theory presupposes that motivation is the inner impetus to implement sustained change independent of control by others (Deci & Ryan, 2000; 2008). Deci and Ryan (2008) and Milyavskaya and Koestner (2011) suggested that SDT ...view middle of the document...

Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness
The association of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs has been the topic of Deci’s and Ryan’s research in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). According to SDT theory, the development of self-determination is contingent upon the fulfillment of autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2008; Deci & Ryan, 2009; Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste & Deci, 2010); however, the manner in which these needs are met in relation to the Hays (2009) cultural influences is generally absent from the literature. The question remains as to the characterization of these constructs cross culturally.
Although there is a plethora of literature on motivation and self-determination, the concept of the cross cultural definitions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is absent. Hays (2009) distinguished cultural groups according to the presence of the following variables: age, disability, religion, ethnicity/race, sexual orientation, socioeconomic level, indigenous heritage, national origin, and gender. The organismic-dialectical interchange involves not only the internal process of motivation, but the individual’s social world view (Haggar & Chatzisarantis, 2011; Chirkov, Saskatchewan, Ryan, Kim, Kaplan, 2003; Deci & Ryan, 2000). Reflecting upon self-determination cross culturally according to the Hays framework requires that one think particularly in terms of individualism versus collectivism. Are the constructs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness subject to a universal definition or are they distinct within collectivist cultures?
According to Deci and Ryan (2000) autonomy is essential for the development of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation requires that the behavior be freely chosen separate from environmental rewards or punishments, and that the individual have a belief that she is capable of achieving the goal. According to Lepper, Green, and Nesbitt (1973) the introduction of extrinsic rewards or negative feedback actually counteracts intrinsic motivation as the individual no longer performs the act as a result of interest and joy, but by the controlling force of the reward or perceived punishment decreasing autonomy. Positive feedback does, however, assist in supporting intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Positive feedback supports satisfaction of the need for competence by increasing the self confidence of the recipient (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Positive feedback may additionally be associated with relatedness as positive feedback comes from an external individual who provides a connection to the individual performing the action. It appears that autonomy and competence are essential for intrinsic motivation while relatedness may not be (McGilloway, 2011).
In contrast to Deci and Ryan (2000) who suggested that the need for autonomy in motivation is cross-cultural, Iyengar and Lepper (1999) suggested that with Chinese...

Other Papers Like Cross Cultural Motivation

Managing Cultural Differences Essay

2263 words - 10 pages TITLE: Managing cultural differences By Name Course Professor University City/State Date Contents Introduction 3 Discussion of cultural frameworks 3 My cultural background and discussion of my cultural scores 6 Recommendation on cross cultural management 7 Conclusion 8 References list 9 Introduction Cultural practices in different regions of the world are different. In managing a firm in a particular region, a manager should thus

Maanaging Across Borders - Company Report

6986 words - 28 pages Company report on cross border offshoring management, cultural dimensions and gamification Table of Contents Table of Contents Executive Summary | p.5 | Chapter I – Introduction1.1 Purpose of the Report1.2 Effects of Globalization on Businesses’ 1.3 Company Background1.4 Outline of the Report | pp.6-7 | Chapter II – Cross Border and Offshoring Management 2.1 Introduction2.2 Defining culture2.3 Defining management and cross

Psychology and Culture

1992 words - 8 pages majority influence, thus ensuring continued diversity. Cultural foundations of Psychology: The effect of culture on psychology is quite dominant and we thus have specific branches ‘Cultural Psychology’ and ‘Cross-Cultural Psychology’ to study this behavior. Cultural psychology is a field of psychology which assumes the idea that culture and mind are inseparable, and that psychological theories grounded in one culture are likely to be limited

Psychology Theories

652 words - 3 pages . Every topic in psychology can be looked at in a number of different ways. For example, let’s consider the subject of aggression. Someone who emphasizes a biological perspective would look at the how the brain and nervous system impact aggressive behavior. A professional who stresses a behavioral perspective would look at how environmental variables reinforce aggressive actions. Another psychologist who utilizes a cross-cultural approach might

Avoiding Cross-Cultural Miscommunication

1667 words - 7 pages Columbia Southern University Scholarly Activity I Memo: Avoiding Cross-Cultural Miscommunication [pic] July 3, 2010 Thanks to high technologies and critical ideas, the global economy nowadays is changing fast and effectively. The global business is not only developing faster and faster but also becoming more and more violent. To compete and survive in this environment, we should consider many factors which affect directly or

Effective and Efficient Management Through Cultural Intelligence Training

1013 words - 5 pages Effective and efficient management through Cultural Intelligence Training With the widespread application of Globalization, the accelerating driving force of information technology, outstanding advanced new transportation systems, increasing migrated work force seeking greener pasture, limitless academic boundary of intellectual and intelligentsia, working cross borders, brain drain of developing countries towards developed countries, human

Critical Review Of "Culture And Conflict: Japanese Managers And Thai Subordinates"

658 words - 3 pages different views about consensus and the separation of private and work time. On the other hand, the findings also showed that Japanese managers adapt more to Thai culture and Thai subordinates also adapt to the Japanese style of management and human resource system. But in some critical areas such as motivation, consensus teamwork and the emphasis on cross-cultural understanding, the Japanese managers and Thai subordinates are still have different

Behavior Change Theories And Models

959 words - 4 pages has an unhealthy diet, they may lack the motivation to make the necessary changes. Motivation is vital if the precaution adoption model is to be successful. A cross-sectional survey among 979 non-obese adults, aged 25-35 years, was conducted. Perceived behavioral control was lowest among people who had decided to prevent weight gain, only 85% surveyed intended to prevent weight gain (Wammes, Kremers, Breedveld, & Brug, 2013). Acknowledging

Chapter1 Case

2458 words - 10 pages research on cross cultural training, Black and Mendenhall found that up to 40 percent of expatriate managers leave their assignments early because of poor performance or poor adjustment to the local environment. About half of those who remain are considered only marginally effective. Furthermore, they found that cross-cultural differences are the cause of failed negotiations and interactions, resulting in losses to U.S. firms of over $2 billion a year

Hrm and Its Role on Culture

827 words - 4 pages unusual HRM practices and policies which address the cross-cultural concerns. Cultural differences on the other hand are significant for studying HRM practices and policies within a comparative context. It has been argued that the concept of HRM is supported largely in the U.S. but is not practiced or espoused anywhere else within Europe along with the transition economies. Rising workplace diversity results in greater challenges for both the

Emerging Trends in Organizational Behaviour

1676 words - 7 pages the organizations which have given rise to differences in the role of sex. Men and women both are | |enjoying the higher level jobs and remuneration. It has also given rise to the differences in the achievement motivation by setting difficult| |goals, giving lot of feedback, taking lot of responsibility of work and by encouraging an action orientation. Cross culture has led to | |differences in work values and motivation factors

Related Essays

Cross Cultural Motivation Essay

557 words - 3 pages Cross-Cultural Communication The part where we want to focus on this research is how people communicate and do business internationally, how the differences in the culture can impact a negotiation and the business relationship. First is what she calls "cognitive constraints." These are the frames of reference or worldviews that provide a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into. Second are "behavior constraints

Introduction To Cultural Psychology Essay

1197 words - 5 pages and is meant to encourage equality for all cultural groups (Matsumoto, 2000). Cross-cultural psychology can use multiculturalism to strengthen psychology by providing evidence about behavior, motivation, and emotion of people who live in other national, ethnic, and cultural contexts (Levy & Shiraev, 2010). The Quantitative and Qualitative Methods In order to conduct research for cross-cultural psychology the kind of research or

Motivations, Values And Emotions Essay

579 words - 3 pages information (Involvement) 4. Values  Link of values to consumer behavior o set of values has influence on consumption activities o purchase of products/services which help to attain value-related goal o Marketers have to be aware of/sensitive to: cultural values, personal values & shifts of values (example: LOHAS) Analysis of values o Many different ways to analyze different values o Analysis of cross-cultural values: Hofstede’s Cultural

Cross Cultural Management Essay

2049 words - 9 pages cultures applies to communication in the workplace. Working with people in an organization requires dealing with certain issues such as motivating employees, structuring policies and developing strategies. In this case, there has to be a kind of understanding of the cultural diversities in order to apply the afore-mentioned issues in the workplace. 2. Cross-cultural Management “Cross Cultural Management” in layman term can be