Critical Thinking Essay

578 words - 3 pages

1-CP: a declarative sentence is true just in case it corresponds to the facts as they actually are. A declarative sentence is false just in case it fails to correspond to the facts as they actually are.

2-CP1: a proposition is true just in case it describes things as. A proposition says that a certain object has a particular characteristic, then it is true just in case that object actually does have that characteristic. A proposition is false just in case it fails to describe things as they actually are. A false proposition doesn’t correspond to the facts. If a proposition says that a certain object has a particular characteristics, then it is false if that object doesn’t have that characteristic.

3-OTV: every proposition has exactly one true value. It is either true or false, but not both.

4-BP: whenever a person considers any proposition, that person must believe the ...view middle of the document...

The stronger one’s evidence for a proposition is, the stronger one’s belief in it should be.
Standard form of an argument: argument written out as consecutively numbered premises and conclusion, with the justification for each line in the argument stated.

Argument reconstruction: the process of rewriting in standard form an argument expressed in ordinary prose.

Argument evaluation: the process of determining whether an argument is a good argument.

Deductively valid argument: a valid argument with premises that are reasonable for a person to believe.

Indeductively valid argument: a cogent argument with reasonable premises that is not defeated by one’s background evidence.

Invalid argument: an argument that is not valid.

Pattern of argument: the logical structure or form of an argument.

Predicate logic: logical system in which sentences are broken down in subunits such as subjects and predicates

Sentential logic: a system of logic that deals with the logical relations among complete sentence.

Compound sentence: sentence formed by combining two or more simpler sentences.

Negation: a sentence formed by preceding with the word “not”.

Conjunction: compound sentence formed by connecting two simpler sentences with the word and” or “ its equivalent.

Disjunction: compound statement formed by connecting two simpler statements with the word “ or” or its equivalent.

Conditional: compound sentence formed by connecting two simpler sentences with the word “ if “.

Antecedent: the “ if “ clause of a conditional.

Consequent: the “ then” clause of a conditional.

Generalization: sentence expressing a proposition about a group of things rather than individual things.

Quantifier: word indicating quantity, such as “ all”, “most”, and “some” in a generalization.

Ill-formed argument: an argument that is neither valid or nor cogent.

Well-formed argument: an argument whose conclusion does follow from its premises.

Incomplete argument: an argument with a premise or the conclusion omitted; especially.

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