The Correctional is one of the core components of the American criminal justice system. Once an offender has been convicted, it becomes the responsibility of the judge to impose some form of punishment. The sentence may take a form of supervised probation in the community, a fine, a prison term, or some combination of these. The correction process begins once an offender has been sentenced. One of the main problems in the correctional system is prison or jail overcrowding. Even thou many new prisons have been built throughout the nation during the past 20 years to accommodate the growing number of inmates, prison overcrowding is still very much a reality in many jurisdictions. Overcrowding by itself is not cruel and unusual punishment, according to the U.S. Supreme Court in Rhodes vs. Chapman (1981), which considered the issue of double bunking along with other alleged forms of “deprivation” at the Southern Ohio Correctional ...view middle of the document...
The main reasons that crime has decreased over the years, but incarceration rates have increased is war on drugs, three-strike rules, and reduction in individual paroled. I strongly believed educating inmates while incarcerated can be good advantage for them so they want be repeated offenders when their released. The criminal justice system monitors the behavior of community members via government agencies such as the police/sheriff's departments, the courts and the state and federal prison systems. Law enforcement personnel patrol communities to ensure that neighborhoods remain safe, and U.S. citizens may report crimes they witness or personally experience. Suspected criminals are given fair trials in U.S. courts, and if convicted, sentenced to rehabilitation or incarceration. Corrections are also the name of a field of academic study concerned with the theories, polices, and programs pertaining to the practice of corrections. Its object of study includes personnel training and management as well as the experiences of those on the other side of the fence — the unwilling subjects of the correctional process.Stohr and colleagues write that "Earlier scholars were more honest, calling what we now call corrections by the name penology, which means the study of punishment for crime." The use of sanctions, which can be either positive (rewarding) or negative (punishment) is the basis of all criminal theory, along with the main goals of social control, and deterrence of deviant behavior.
Many facilities operating in the United States adhere to particular correctional theories. Although often heavily modified, these theories determine the nature of the facilities' design and security operations. The two primary theories used today are the more traditional Remote Supervision and the more contemporary model. In the Remote Supervision Model, officers observe the inmate population from remote positions, e.g., towers or secure desk areas. The Direct Supervision Model positions prison officers within the inmate population, creating a more pronounced presence.
Schmalleger, Frank. (2011) CRJ 100 Introduction to Criminal Justice
Prison Life….Chapter 12-14, p.490-535