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Criminal Justice Essay

2584 words - 11 pages

Andrea Ritchie Final Exam

Question 1:

A widespread burden of drug sale crimes has continued to remain a global level problem of police focus. Police policyholders and lawmakers began examining existing resources and emerging police strategies to focus efforts on the sale of drugs on street corners by implementing directed police policies and hot spot strategies to crackdown on crime, ultimately to apprehend offenders and drive the level of drug use down. Several key components are involved in policing to evaluate the police policy/strategy being utilized: inputs, activities, outputs, objective outcomes, and subjective outcomes. Police resources/inputs were allocated and applied in ...view middle of the document...

Researchers Spelman & Brown and Antunes & Scott have complied documents highlighting some of the problems of rapid response service. In turn when evaluating the necessity of this police treatment its important to also consider independent variables that may alter the need and/or effectiveness for this proposed treatment such as the types of crimes (involvement or discovery crimes), if the crime requires immediate response, and the potential for citizen delay in contacting the police.

Both Spelman & Brown and Antunes & Scott conducted experiments to answer the proposed question: Do police calls need a rapid response? The results of these two studies are unanimous that most crimes do not require a rapid response for service; Spelman and Brown analyzed the characteristics of citizens when they contact the police across several cities in relation to the low level of high risk crimes called-in correlating to minimal arrests. Their research concludes citizen behavior negatively impacts police ability to effectively perform their role using rapid response service. Spelman and Brown also place emphasis on the types of crime and whether the type of crime negates immediate response, the two main areas of crime being discovery and involvement crimes. Discovery crimes are reported at a significantly higher rate and the criminal actions have been completed before the crime was discovered, and involvement crimes are reported at a far lower rate and the victimizer is directly confronting the victim. Hence less reports of crimes requiring immediate attention continues to drive the statement that most crimes do not require rapid response since the actions have already ceased. Antunes and Scott’s research explored the inward call environment of the call takers and dispatchers whom not only collect information from callers but make decisions on which calls require rapid response, without having concrete evidence as with results Spelman and Brown there are several outside factors that effect the usefulness/effectiveness of rapid response service.

Several deciding factors come into play further de-emphasizing the need for why most calls do not require rapid response service. The types of calls citizen place vary across a wide spectrum in the severity and necessity of police response, studies have been conducted in a number of cities on the rate of arrest when rapid response was used, reporting 29 arrests at the scene of the crime fro every 1,000 cases called in. Another study conducted by the Kansas City Police Department examined further police response time for high-level report crimes, supporting evidence showed that police response time did not affect arrest rates, but citizens’ delay in notifying the police negatively impacted police efforts. One of the main reason citizens often delay in calling the police is fear in being associated with the crime, through proper training and advertising citizen can be aware of the benefits of reporting...

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