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Contrast And Comparison Of Operating Systems

3990 words - 16 pages

Contrast and Comparison of Operating Systems
Team B will take what we have learned from our course POS/355 Operating systems and research to compare and contrast the UNIX/Linux, Microsoft Windows, and MacOS systems. In particular we will contrast and compare the different operating systems in regards to memory management, processing, file management and security. Operating systems at the core is all about the kernel. The kernel in all of the operating systems is the main component that is responsible in the management of memory, processing, file management and security.

Contrast and Comparison of Memory Management within Operating Systems
Memory management in comparison and contrasts ...view middle of the document...

In actuality, when the performance becomes altered it is only due to the incidence of a page fault. In comparison to other operating systems, UNIX is quite different when it comes to managing its memory. The operating system uses extremely sophisticated memory management algorithms to make the best use of memory resources. One method of Memory Management used by UNIX is called Mapping. Mapping is defined when a segment of a files virtual memory is designated as corresponding to the contents of the given file. When the mapped file is accessed it is actually pulling data from the file itself. File mapping is primarily used for the loading of executable code or when a program is launched. One of the initial actions after this occurs is to map the program executable and all of its shared libraries into the newly created virtual memory space. There are a few versions of UNIX (and Linux) distributions that will let you see how this actually works by using trace, truss, or strace tools. One important thing to note about this method is that mapped files will share the same address space as RAM. The size of these files can be limited if the CPU or Memory controller is only using 32-bit addressing, compared to Linux, Mac, and Windows which are more flexible with memory format. For UNIX, this means that files larger than two or three gigabytes can’t be mapped at all. Mapped files are copied by some of the older operating systems in the swap space, which allows room for errors because a clean copy of the files exists.
2. Linux: Although Linux shares a number of the same characteristics of memory management with other UNIX operating systems, it has a number of features that are a part of its own unique implementation of memory management. Linux uses virtual memory in its scheme and also kernel memory allocation for the purposes of handling addressing and allocation of memory to specific processes. Specifically, Linux has a three level page-table structure that consists of a number of different types of tables. These three tables are the page directory, page middle directory, and the page table. Each process running in the OS has a single page directory; each entry in the page directory corresponds to a page in the page middle directory and must be in main memory for any active process. The page middle directory can span a number of pages with each pointing to a single page in the page table. The page table also has the capacity to span multiple pages and each entry in the table refers to a virtual page in the process. Utilization of this three level page table structure depends on the use of virtual memory; a virtual memory address is made up of four fields. The leftmost field serves as an index into the page directory; the next field is the index for the page middle directory while the third is an index in the page table. The fourth and final field in the virtual memory address provides the offset within the selected page of memory. The primary...

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