Continental Drift Essay

5666 words - 23 pages

Mega events:
A mega event is something that is of a high profile that runs for a fixed duration of time on a short term basis. All over the world there seems to be an interest linked to a mega event. Also there is a sustainable and measurable economic outcome from a mega event.
The event in the end doesn’t necessarily have to be financially successful, but it will have some sort of impact on the economy as a hole for example by generating tourism and infrastructural improvements. It also improves employment in both short term and long term basis.
A mega event also involves political role playing in terms of decision making and the strategies of a country’s government. It can be either on ...view middle of the document...

The South African travel and tourism sector, of which sport tourism is a subsection, will contribute 8.7% to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009 (WTTC 2009). One determinant of the rise in tourism is event tourism; tourists attracted to a country or region with the specific aim of consuming event-specific goods. Mega-sport events, in particular, are considered to entail significant benefits for the host country in terms of tourism arrivals, both concurrently with the event and as a legacy (Baade and Matheson 2003; Baade and Matheson 2004; Matheson and Baade 2004; Preuss 2004; Solberg and Preuss 2006; Preuss 2007; Preuss 2007; Hagn and Maennig 2009).

South Africa has hosted major sporting events in the recent past, including the 1995 IRB Rugby World Cup, 1996 African Cup of Nations, 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup, 2007 World Twenty20

Mega-events and their impact on tourism
The appeal of hosting a mega-event, or more specifically a mega-sporting event, has grown significantly
over the last two decades. Not only have the advent of professionalism in sport, combined with
higher per capita income worldwide and improvements in broadcast technology, made mega-events a
truly global experience (Horne and Manzenreiter 2006), but also countries and regions increasingly
consider these events as possible lucrative opportunities encapsulating large potential tangible and
intangible benefits for the host.
What has been less apparent is the size of these benefits. Although scholars have attempted
to measure the economic gains that result from hosting a mega-event since the 1980s, it is in the
most recent decade that the debate about the potential gains, both in terms of economic returns
and intangible benefits (including various non-quantifiable advantages as broad as national pride,
patriotism and country image), has intensified. Comparisons are fraught with difficulties; ex ante
studies differ from ex post analyses while methodologies depend on data availability and the skills of
the researcher (Kesenne 2005). However, the central problem remains similar across the spectrum:
isolating the impact of one mega-event and determining its counterfactual. Put more plainly: Are
the costs for infrastructure, stadia, security and marketing worth the gains from tourism, trade
and tickets? And, if not directly, does the event spark — maybe indirectly — long-run economic
development?
Empirical results vary considerably across papers. Measuring only the economic returns to host
the Summer Olympic Games, Preuss (2004; 2007) and Baade and Matheson (2003) show that the
gains are ambiguous [see also Kasimati (2003)]. The benefits from hosting the FIFA World Cup are
similarly doubtful (Szymanski 2002; Baade and Matheson 2004; Lee and Taylor 2005; Allmers and
Maennig 2009). As the two largest mega-sport events on the planet and with a seemingly endless
interest from countries in hosting these events, such results come as a surprise. ‘Smaller’ megaevents...

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