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Contaminacion Essay

1201 words - 5 pages

Componentes abióticos
Los componentes abióticos de un ecosistema están formados por aspectos no orgánicos del medio ambiente que determinan las formas de vida pueden prosperar en el mismo. Algunos ejemplos de componentes abióticos son la temperatura, la humedad promedio, la topografía y las perturbaciones naturales. La temperatura varía según la latitud, por ejemplo en lugares cerca del ecuador hace más calor que en las zonas cerca de los polos o que en zonas templadas. La humedad influye en la cantidad de agua y humedad que haya en el aire y el suelo, el cual a su vez genera las lluvias. La topografía es la distribución de la tierra en términos de elevación. Por ejemplo, de acuerdo con la ...view middle of the document...

Son los organismos AUTÓTROFOS por excelencia: plantas y algas fotosintetizadoras.
 Consumidores: son los que aprovechan la materia orgánica del nivel alimentario o trófico anterior - productores- para convertirla en materia orgánica propia. Losconsumidores primarios son los animales herbívoros, que se alimentan directamente de las plantas (oruga, ovejas, elefante, caracol). Los consumidores secundarios son los carnívoros que se alimentan de otros animales (pájaros, arañas, zorros, etc.). Un carnívoro que coma carnívoros que se alimentan de herbívoros es un consumidor terciario, y así sucesivamente.

Organismos generalmente microscópicos (bacterias, actinomicetos y hongos) que se encargan de desintegrar la materia orgánica muerta y retornarla ya mineralizada al reservorio abiótico del ecosistema. DESCOMPONEDORES, DESINTEGRADORES, REDUCTORES.

¿Como funciona un ecosistema?
Un ecosistema o sistema ecológico funciona como cualquier sistema abierto es decir ingreso de energía y materia, procesamiento de las mismas y salida de materia y energía 

Flujo de la energía a través de los ecosistemas 

La vida en la tierra depende de la energía del sol que llega a la superficie terrestre y queda a disposición de los seres vivos. 

A 150 millones de kilómetros de distancia el sol libera enormes cantidades de energía, una pequeñísima fracción de esta energía llega a la tierra en forma de ondas electromagnéticas, que incluyen calor, luz y radiación ultravioleta. De la energía que llega, gran parte es reflejada por la atmósfera, las nubes y la superficie terrestre. La tierra y su atmósfera absorben una cantidad aún mayor, y sólo queda alrededor de 1% para ser aprovechada por los seres vivos. Del 1% de la energía que llega a la tierra en forma de luz, las plantas verdes y otros organismos fotosintéticos capturan 3% o menos. En conclusión la vida en la tierra se sostiene con menos de 0,03% de la energía que la Tierra recibe del Sol. 

Todas las transformaciones de la energía obedecen a las Leyes de la Termodinámica. La segunda ley de la Termodinámica gobierna los patrones de flujo de energía a través de los ecosistemas. 

La fotosíntesis y el flujo de la energía 

La energía entra a las comunidades por la vía de la fotosíntesis. Esta energía alimenta los procesos del ecosistema. 

La tasa o intensidad a la cual las plantas (productores de un ecosistema) capturan y almacenan una cantidad dada de energía se denomina productividad primaria bruta, la que está determinada por la cantidad de agua y temperatura disponibles. Y producción primaria neta es la que queda luego de restar la energía que las plantas usan para su mantenimiento (como respiración, construcción de tejidos y reproducción). Parte de esta energía (la que forma los tejidos vegetales) es consumida por animales herbívoros o usada por otros organismos cuando la planta muere. Las plantas contienen mucha menos energía que la que...

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