Version 2 second quiz
1- Much learning takes effort and time, but some learning is so casual as to be unintentional. This type of learning is referred to as ________ learning.
A. stage one
2- ________ was first demonstrated by experiments performed on dogs by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist doing research on digestion in animals.
A. Instrumental conditioning
B. Classical conditioning
C. Rejection conditioning
D. Extinction conditioning
3- Stimulus generalization refers to ________.
A. the tendency for stimuli to be similar in nature
B. the fact that most conditioned stimuli are similar to unconditioned stimuli ...view middle of the document...
D. Negative reinforcement creates a preference for negative results, while punishment teaches people to avoid negative results.
7- Clearly, forgetting is a big problem for marketers with respect to messages and communications sent to consumers. Memories of products are often replaced (forgotten) as we learn additional information. This displacement of information is called ________.
A. the cueing effect
C. brain cell decay
D. recall adjustment
8- Why are approach-approach conflicts likely to create more cognitive dissonance than approach-avoidance conflicts?
A. Approach-avoidance conflicts result when the positive alternative simply overwhelms the negative, thus no cognitive dissonance exists under this condition.
B. Approach-approach conflicts result when both alternatives are positive. The selection of one requires the rejection of another, which creates a need for a cognitive explanation of why one was not selected. The approach-avoidance conflict produces much less dissonance because one is positive and the other is clearly negative.
C. Approach-avoidance conflicts create inertia, thus past habits are employed without the need to resolve the cognitive inconsistencies.
D. Approach-approach conflicts are very confusing to resolve intellectually, but approach-avoidance conflicts are typically simply resolved through behavioral aspects of reinforcement learning.
9- Lindsay believed that customers would come to view her new resort hotel with high personal involvement because it was a quality property with an excellent view. Instead, she found that many of her customers came to the hotel only when she offered special price discounts. What aspect of consumer involvement had Lindsay ignored?
A. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement includes personal factors and situational factors as well as object factors.
B.Lindsay forgot that most consumers are apathetic about travel, irrespective of the quality of facilities at their travel destinations.
C. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement is primarily a function of price; other factors such as quality are...