REFERENCE, DENOTATION, AND CONNOTATION
(A STUDY of SEMANTIC)
This paper is arranged to fulfill the assignment
Lecturer: Kurniawan, M.Hum
Novi Dyah Ayu Sri M : 26.09.6.2.124
Rifqi Syafiatul Hidayah : 26.09.6.2.140
Sayekti Pujilestari : 26.09.6.2.147
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT
INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC COLLEGE
Arcnoff and Miller (2003:370) says that semantics focuses on theories of meaning which apply to sentences that make statements, and are taken to be either true are false. This assumption shows that there is relationship between linguistic expression and the world which is at the ...view middle of the document...
According to Palmer (1976:30) “reference deals with the relationship between the linguistics elements, words, sentences, etc, and on linguistic world of experience”.
In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relationships between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them. Hence, the word "John" refers to John. The word "it" refers to some previously specified object. The object referred to is called the "referent" of the word.
To be sure, it is easier to form a mental picture for some words DOOR and DOG for example. What mental image do you form for DOOR? A revolving door? A folding door? A sliding door, moving horizontally? An overhead door which moves vertically? A door turning on hinges? Is it in a wall, or on a cabinet, or part of a car? Is your image associated with DOG that of a St Bernard or a Pekingese, a mongrel or an Irish Setter?
You can picture all of these in sequence but not simultaneously. Clearly the meaning of door or dog is more than what is included in a single image, and your knowledge of these words is much more than the ability to relate them to single objects. You can use these words successfully in a large number of situations because you have the knowledge that makes this possible. Just as we distinguished between ‘utterance’ and ‘sentence,’ we need to draw a distinction between reference and denotation.
* The use of words/phrases to pick out something in the world. There are several possibilities of referent such as:
Referent can be an entity, like: a thing, a person or an animal | * Doctor * House * Puppy | * Animate, human, male or female, having been, trained in medical science * Inanimate, building, with rooms, made for a family to life in * Animate, animal, mammal, vertebrate, dog, young |
Referent can be a psychological power | * Tollerance * Intelelligence | * The power to endure without protest * The power of seeing, learning, understanding and knowing |
Referent can be event | * Party * Earthquake | * An event of gathering a person by invitation for pleassure * An event of suddent violence, shaking, of the earth’s surface |
Referent can be situation or time | * Season * Watch | * Time suitable or normal for something * Time of wakefulness in the night |
Referent can be state | * Clean * Happy | * A state of beeing free from dirt * A state of feeling pleassure |
Referent can be action | * Kill * Sing | * An action that causes the death of an animate beeing * An action of making musical sound with a voince |
Referent can be process | * Heating * Raining | * A process of becoming hot * The process of water falling from cloud |
Referent can be psychological experience | * Know * Remember | * Have in mind as the result of experiences or being informed or because want has learnt * Call back to mind the memory of |
Referent can be manner | * Clearly * Softly | * In a clear...