Conflict Management And Negotiation Essay

3360 words - 14 pages




BHR 107

Discuss the basic theoretical models of bargaining process and explain how they can improve individuals negotiation skills in an organisation.


Bargaining can be defined as an agreement between parties settling what each gives or receives in a transaction between them or what course of action or policy each pursues in respect to the other.

The study of bargaining process involves an analysis of the actors, the stakes and the factors involved. All theories feed into each other, and combining these theories allows for a more complete understanding of the issues involved in bargaining ...view middle of the document...

• Discerning what the real issues are at stake, and not necessarily those claimed by the parties.
• Highlighting the similarities in each party's positions, which show that the parties do have common objectives that cooperation is possible.
The great value gained in the diagnosis phase of the Integrative Approach was seen in the 2007 elections in Kenya over the disputed elections between two political parties i.e. PNU and ODM. Both sides were warring over the presidency, ODM side claimed that the elections were unfair. Through negotiations led by former U.N. president Koffi Annan, the parties eventually realized that their personal goals were not incompatible. Thus, an agreement was reached in which a coalition government was formed and both parties shared powers. Analysis of the conflict from the Integrative Approach allowed the negotiations to reach a win-win consensus in which the interests and concerns of both parties were addressed and a viable solution was found.
Formulation Phase
In the formulation phase:
• A structure for the negotiations and a common definition of the problem are agreed upon.
• Terms of trade are decided.
• Notions of justice are determined.
Implementation Phase
This final phase requires the agreement be put into practice, often proving to be a great challenge. Here lower level negotiations play an important role in swaying potential spoilers to abide by the new rules. In this phase peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance and peace building efforts help prevent a re-escalation of violence and support peace.
2. Game Theory
Strategic approaches to conflict management are most often expressed in terms of game theory. Such structure-based approaches form their analysis based on determined end points. The prisoner's dilemma and the chicken dilemma are both variations of game theory. These strategic approaches are outcome-oriented and see the choices one party makes in negotiation as the result of a strategy based on the values of the available outcomes. These approaches were especially popular during the Cold War when American and Soviet nuclear weapons build-up was characterized as a "game of chicken." Game theory assumes that:
• all actors are rational,
• the pay-offs are known,
• the "game" can be played numerous times.
a. Prisoner's Dilemma
This approach is based on the set-up of two partners in a crime who are separately being questioned by the police. Each is given the option of confessing to the crime or remaining silent. The pay-off of each criminal's action is dependent upon what the other does: If criminal A confesses and B does not, A doesn't serve any time and B has to serve 4 years. If both and A and B confess, they each get 2 years. If neither A nor B confesses, they each serve 1 year. The difficulty lies in that the two cannot communicate with each other so they have to choose their actions on what each thinks the other will do.
| ...

Other Papers Like Conflict Management and Negotiation

Conflict Face Negotiation Essay

1635 words - 7 pages Face-Negotiation Theory (Conflict) Dr. Stella Ting-Toomey developed the Face Negotiation Theory as a way of describing how people from different cultural backgrounds handle conflict with each other. She bases her theory on two basic concepts: Face (how we want people to see us/our public self image), and Facework (ways of handling conflict). She has identified 7 core assumptions and 5 empirical propositions that when used in tandem

The Principled Negotiation Method Essay

1307 words - 6 pages easiest form of negotiation; however, it is most likely to result in a ‘fair and mutually satisfying agreement’ . Principled negotiation resolves day to day conflicts both minor and major while being able to ‘lesson anxiety and produce good agreements’ . Principled negotiation looks into getting all parties involved a good agreement to satisfy all. However, what is a good agreement? As portrayed by Nicole Cutts in her article on Conflict Management, a

Nagotiation Stratagies Paper

790 words - 4 pages strategy is the strategy was used in this merger. This strategy allows AT&T to minimize conflict and maintain a good working relationship with the T Mobile employees and management staff. No resources were divided in this merger because AT& T will take over T Mobile completely. Using accommodative negotiation strategy will keep both companies employees happy because they are open with what will happen within the merging process. Albertsons was in

Miami School Board Discirt Negotiation

1449 words - 6 pages commitment. According to Lewicki-Saunders-Barry, escalation of commitment is partly individual perception and judgment (2006). According to Lewicki−Saunders−Barry, we consider negotiation as a process between individuals, within groups, organizations, between groups reaching joint agreement about differing needs or ideas.” For some people, negotiating appears easy, but other people view the process of negotiation as a conflict (Lewicki, Saunders

Analyzing Personal Management Styles

1492 words - 6 pages or get what they want at the conclusion of the deal. Of course, collaboration takes the longest to resolve conflict and is very intricate in its design, satisfying all people involved. Obvious disadvantages of the collaboration conflict management style is that it is very time consuming and involving for all involved in it. Advantages of collaboration are the benefits received by both people at the end of the conflict negotiation. Everyone wins

Procurement Officer

5037 words - 21 pages negotiation; and iii. Designing a BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement). 4. Conflict Management in Negotiation i. Types of negotiation conflict; ii. Causes of conflict in Negotiation; and iii. Conflict resolution and management strategies. 5. Negotiation in different Product Portfolios (Krajlic Matrix) i. Establishing negotiation goals and objectives for each product portfolio; ii. Choice of techniques and tactics for use in each portfolio

Peace And Conflicts

816 words - 4 pages and this should be done in an active manner. Conflict management is achieved by the use of good negotiation skills, effective communication and problem solving abilities. This means that, those involved in conflict management should be expects, those people who are able to use the conflict tree and deal with the root cause and the perspectives of the disputing parties rather than their positions, so as to reach a common ground thus managing the


4114 words - 17 pages BATNAs and contributions, and therefore put themselves in a stronger position to negotiate. A thorough knowledge of the negotiation process will allow managers to bargain more effectively both within their organization and in dealings with other businesses. Works Cited Anton, R.J. (1990), Drawing the line: An exploratory test of ethical behavior in negotiation, International Journal of Conflict Management, 1, 265-180. Bazerman M.H., Curhan J.R

Negotiation Skills-Case Study 1

573 words - 3 pages December 1, 2012 HRM 594-60124 Negotiation Skills Keller Graduate School of Management Cast Study 1: Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation In any good negotiation, it is important that the Capital Mortgage Insurance Corporation (CMIC) and Corporate Transfer Services (CTS) understand the issue and must come into the negotiation with a clear idea of what the conflict is and what they would like to gain from it. Both companies should present

American Styles of Negiotiation

677 words - 3 pages A style of negotiation is influenced by personality and ability of the negotiator as well as the cultural, political, and emotional situations. Non-verbal behavior play very important role in a negotiation process. Some of the characteristics typical to American style of negotiation can be misinterpreted by others due to cultural differences. Some of the characteristics of American style of negotiation are: impatience, arrogance, poor

Choosing Your Battles

1025 words - 5 pages Introduction In the workplace there will be times when conflicts arises between employees and sometimes it may involve management or management can be completely clueless to the intension stirring within their department. Not only is it within the job description of management to resolve workplace conflicts but also the employees involved. To help resolve conflict it is important for everyone to acknowledge the issues, use active listening

Related Essays

The Mumbai Job A Strategy Negotiation & Conflict Management Case Study

3098 words - 13 pages which ended with the first salary negotiation of my life. About the Company L&T Infotech is a subsidiary of Larsen & Toubro (L&T), which is the largest Engineering and Construction Company in India. L&T has a dominant presence in India's infrastructure, power, hydrocarbon, machinery and railway related projects. It was featured 4 times in the Forbes Fab-50 list as one of the best public companies in the Asia Pacific region. In recent years, L&T

Collaboration, Conflict And Negotiation Post Diagnosis – Viking Investments

1001 words - 5 pages Our company’s merged to avoid the bankruptcy, a Pareto Efficient outcome. Given we essentially had a negative bargaining zone (dispute context), as total resources I was owed and needed immediately, were less than Sandy could pay, integrative bargaining provided full disclosure and an optimal solution. Power is evident from the ability to force bankruptcy based on my contract rights, however, in court this power would prove useless if Sandy

Negotiations And Conflict Management Essay

2567 words - 11 pages Negotiation and Conflict Management Final Report “It’s time to go to the next level of my career,” I told myself a few months ago. Life and life experiences have put me in the right place at the right time to make my daydream a reality. As a natural born citizen of another country and as a newly-married person, I have a unique perspective as well as a set of obstacles and opportunities on the road ahead as I pursue my Executive MBA while being

Team Strategy And Conflict Management Plan

1467 words - 6 pages overlooked is making sure the leadership of the company has appropriate training to know when problems occur. Also there should be training focusing on the end goal of every leader which should be to advance the company. University of Phoenix Material Conflict Management Plan 1. Identify the available conflict management strategies and their strengths and weaknesses. |Strategy