This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Conditioning Essay

1680 words - 7 pages


Definition of classical conditioning

Classical conditioning is defined in Psychology as “a process by which a stimulus that previously did not elicit a response comes to elicit a response, in reflex—like fashion, after it is paired with one or more trials with a stimulus that already elicits a response” (Gray, 1999, p 100). Having to do with the reflexes, the definition of classical condition can be abbreviated into the idea of involuntary behavior. The example of Pavlov’s dog illustrates this as the dog came to associate the sound of a bell with food, causing a reflexive action of salivating, resulting in salivation even when the bell was not paired with food.
...view middle of the document...

Needless to say I am never at ease any more with this particular dog and from now on, any time I am sitting down and I see the dog approaching me, I immediately jump up and try to get away from her.

Analysis of behavior

Maya, the dog who urinated on me, was an unconditioned stimulus prior to her accident that night. However, after she urinated on me, the sight of her became a conditioned stimulus and out of fear of another accident, I jumped up, which became the conditioned response. This process, which depended on conditions which were present in my previous experience, is known as a conditioned reflex, since the pairing of seeing the dog approaching me like she had the previous time and jumping on me resulted in a reflex motion of jumping up even without the urination which occurred the first time.
To a certain degree I have experienced extjnction with this response to Maya. Sometimes after coming near me frequently throughout the evening without any type of accident I am able to relax and let her jump on me without jumping up and away from her. However, the next time I go over to my boyfriend’s house I repeat the entire process, resembling spontaneous recovery. The extinction in my case therefore only lasts for a brief passage of time and the conditioned reflex then comes back to me. Like Peter Gray says, “a single pairing of the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stImulus can renew the conditioned reflex” (Gray, 1999, p 105).

My reflexive action of jumping up when I see Maya approaching me sometimes pertains to the other dog, Cleo. Although there was never any incident with Cleo, and although the unconditioned stimulus was never paired with her, I sometimes react in the same way as I do to Maya, which is the conditioned reflex. This action can be considered generalization as this new stimulus, Cieo, is similar to the other dog.

Definition of operant conditioning

Psychology defines operant conditioning as “a process by which the consequences of a response Increase or decrease the likelihood that the response will occur again” (Gray, 1999, p 100). Simply stated, operant conditioning has to do with voluntary behavior, as actions are performed for an effect. Skinner’s method of studying operant behavior is a good example because his apparatus allowed the rat inside of it to acquire a reward of a pellet or water by pressing a lever, but remained in the box afterwards to repeat the process if desired. This differed from Thorndike’s puzzle boxes because the animal would have to be put back at the beginning of the box, not allowing it the chance to continue the action.

Personal experience with operant conditioning

I dance for a halau, which is a dance school for the Hawaiian dance form, hula. There are two parts which we focus on in dancing, the feet movements, and the hand movements. As hula is a means of telling a story, the hands are the important method of accomplishing this, so precision Is a must. We dance In...

Other Papers Like Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Essay

1344 words - 6 pages ABSTRACT Classical and Operant conditioning are two learning processes that we use through our daily lives. Classical conditioning is shown by when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to get a conditioned response and can indeed cause phobias. Phobias are an intense or irrational fear and the avoidance of a specific object or situation (Huffman, 2008). Operant conditioning is the formation of an association between a

Classical Conditioning Essay

1018 words - 5 pages Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. Classical conditioning is defined as a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. In classical conditioning the stimulus triggers the response of an organism. There are four concepts created by Pavlov that give classical conditioning a better understanding. The

Classical Conditioning

1586 words - 7 pages Classical Conditioning The comprehension of the classical conditioning concepts helps professionals identify various factors affecting this procedure. The four basic classical conditioning concepts become various stages of environmental stimulus. These environmental stimuli processed through sensation and perception converts the classical conditioning concepts into changed behavioral patterns. Classical conditioning concepts also introduce

Classical Conditioning - 720 words

720 words - 3 pages Classical Conditioning PSY/390 November 2, 2011 Elizabeth Alexander-Bernard Classical Conditioning * Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in Russia. He was studying to become a priest, but then change his mind and study physiology for most of his life. His model was a behaviorist and the things involved with this model are response and stimuli. Ivan Pavlov is considered the father and founder of classical conditioning. He won

Operant Conditioning

948 words - 4 pages Definition Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning vs classic conditioning Operant behaviour "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals

Classical Conditioning - 844 words

844 words - 4 pages Classical Conditioning Paper Accidently founded by Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is basically learning by association behavior. A better definition would be “A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response” (Farlex, 2011). This paper will describe the theory

Operant Conditioning

743 words - 3 pages Operant Conditioning Paper Operant conditioning is very common in society today. Most people are unaware that they are using it throughout their everyday encounters. There are many different ways to enforce operant conditioning. In this paper we will describe the theory of operant conditioning, compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement, determine which form of reinforcement is most effective and why, select a scenario where you

Operant Conditioning

899 words - 4 pages Tony E. McCaffity PSY390 Learning and Cognition Individual Programmatic Assessment: Operant Conditioning October 27, 2014 Describe the theory of Operant Conditioning The theory of Operant Conditioning is developed the behaviorist B. F. Skinner. Operant Conditioning according to Skinner is based on the observing the causes of the action and its consequences. Skinner’s used this

Classical Conditioning - 779 words

779 words - 4 pages Classical Conditioning PSY 390 1/18/2013 Bree Kinasewitz | In the following paper Classical conditioning will be looked at and explained, not only from the perspective of previous research but also on a day to day basis. Classical conditioning is an explanation not only on how an organism learns but also why they learn certain behaviors and reactions. It is the hope of the author to help to explain this process in a manner that not only

Operant Conditioning - 608 words

608 words - 3 pages Operant Conditioning for Addictions Operant conditioning is the second learning principle. This type of learning occurs due to the cause-and-effect relationship between a behavior and its consequences. Operant conditioning has a common sense element. When we reward a behavior, it increases. When we punish a behavior, it decreases. A substance or activity can only become addictive if it is rewarding; i.e., if it is pleasurable or enjoyable (at

Operant Conditioning - 591 words

591 words - 3 pages Operant Conditioning Pamela Combs PS124: Introduction to Psychology Kaplan University June 9, 2014 Operant conditioning is a method of learning base upon a system of rewards and punishments to change behavior. In other words, psychologist use positive and negative reinforcement or positive and negative punishment to change behavior using a basic cause and effect method. Psychologist Edward L. Thorndike was the first to study operant

Related Essays

Conditioning Essay

5151 words - 21 pages my paper does not contain any of the following phrases and/or any similar phrases: “In a study conducted by”, “the study conducted by”, etc. | | I have made sure my paper does not include any personal pronouns such as “I”, “my” “mine”, and “our”, “ours” “us”, “we” or any similar pronouns. | | When explaining studies, I have written in the past tense. | How Organism Learn: Classical & Operant Conditioning Applying Operant &amp

Conditioning Essay

922 words - 4 pages Learning Theory is the work of Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov. It is he who discovered the principles on how human and animals learn. Learning is defined as a permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience. There are two kinds of learning or conditioning: Classical conditioning is one of many different types of learning. One instance would be when a person learns to relate a signal with a meaning on how the two are presented

Conditioning Essay

1224 words - 5 pages Operant conditiong is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthen or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences. (Feldman, 2010, 170) Psychologist B.F. Skinner conducted research that best show us how reinforcement became the central concept of operant conditioning. The theory behind why reinforcement beats punishment is that punishment has shown several disadvantages including the initial behavior may be

Classical Conditioning Essay 1232 Words

1232 words - 5 pages Classical Conditioning Lon H. Gray University of Phoenix PSY/390 Learning and Cognition SC11BSP07 April 11, 2012 Dr. Rick Bazant Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov is the father of classical conditioning, a learning theory that is also called Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlov was a Russian physiologist centered in experimental science, in which his experiments were novel and innovative. Pavlov and his team accidently discovered