This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Conditioning Essay

1224 words - 5 pages

Operant conditiong is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthen or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences. (Feldman, 2010, 170) Psychologist B.F. Skinner conducted research that best show us how reinforcement became the central concept of operant conditioning.

The theory behind why reinforcement beats punishment is that punishment has shown several disadvantages including the initial behavior may be replaced by one that is even less desirable. Prior to looking at this, you have to understand that basis for many of the most important kinds of human and animal learning is known as operant conditioning. “Operant conditioning is learning in which a ...view middle of the document...

"Positive punishment weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus." (Feldman, 2010, 172) An example is someone spending time in jail for a crime they committed. “Negative punishment is the removal of something to be included with being punished. This can include not allowing kids to participate in extracurricular activities on top of being grounded because of poor behavior. Research has shown that using positive reinforcement has an intended result of an increase in positive behavior. Even though is some instances, punishment is necessary, it still does not show to be as useful as reinforcement. “Punishment often presents the quickest route to changing behavior that, if allowed to continue, might be dangerous to an individual.” (Feldman, 2010, 173) By using punishment in this scenario, it is vital to use to help protect someone from harm. From this point, it proves beneficial to utilize a form of positive reinforcement to show or educate the individual to show why their actions could prove harmful to themselves or someone else. “Punishment is frequently ineffective, particularly if it is not delivered shortly after the undesired behavior or if the individual is able to leave the setting in which the punishment is being given.” (Feldman, 2010, 174) It’s pointless to punish someone for their actions if you do not know or wait an extended period of time. They know that they have already got away with something and knowing that punishment is not immediately waiting for them may drive them to continue have bad behavior. Of course if they are never caught at all, will only encourage them to continue.

A schedule of reinforcement is a tactic used in operant conditioning that influences how an operant response is learned and maintained. There are four major concepts of schedules of reinforcement. Each has outcomes of different reinforcement schedules. The first is a fixed-ratio schedule. This is when reinforcement is given based upon a specific number or responses. This can pertain to a person who gets paid based on the production of making a product. The next is a variable-ratio schedule. Unlike fixed-ratio, the reinforcement will come after a varying number of responses. An example of this is someone who is a door to door sales person. They may not make a sale at each house they visit, but the more they visit the more chance they may succeed. The next is a fixed-interval schedule. This describes reinforcement for a response when a set time frame has passed. This pertains to people work and no matter how hard they work, they will receive a paycheck every week on the same day. Lastly, Variable interval schedules allow...

Other Papers Like Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Essay

1344 words - 6 pages ABSTRACT Classical and Operant conditioning are two learning processes that we use through our daily lives. Classical conditioning is shown by when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to get a conditioned response and can indeed cause phobias. Phobias are an intense or irrational fear and the avoidance of a specific object or situation (Huffman, 2008). Operant conditioning is the formation of an association between a

Classical Conditioning Essay

1018 words - 5 pages Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. Classical conditioning is defined as a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. In classical conditioning the stimulus triggers the response of an organism. There are four concepts created by Pavlov that give classical conditioning a better understanding. The

Classical Conditioning

1586 words - 7 pages Classical Conditioning The comprehension of the classical conditioning concepts helps professionals identify various factors affecting this procedure. The four basic classical conditioning concepts become various stages of environmental stimulus. These environmental stimuli processed through sensation and perception converts the classical conditioning concepts into changed behavioral patterns. Classical conditioning concepts also introduce

Classical Conditioning - 720 words

720 words - 3 pages Classical Conditioning PSY/390 November 2, 2011 Elizabeth Alexander-Bernard Classical Conditioning * Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in Russia. He was studying to become a priest, but then change his mind and study physiology for most of his life. His model was a behaviorist and the things involved with this model are response and stimuli. Ivan Pavlov is considered the father and founder of classical conditioning. He won

Operant Conditioning

948 words - 4 pages Definition Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning vs classic conditioning Operant behaviour "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals

Classical Conditioning - 844 words

844 words - 4 pages Classical Conditioning Paper Accidently founded by Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is basically learning by association behavior. A better definition would be “A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response” (Farlex, 2011). This paper will describe the theory

Operant Conditioning

743 words - 3 pages Operant Conditioning Paper Operant conditioning is very common in society today. Most people are unaware that they are using it throughout their everyday encounters. There are many different ways to enforce operant conditioning. In this paper we will describe the theory of operant conditioning, compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement, determine which form of reinforcement is most effective and why, select a scenario where you

Operant Conditioning

899 words - 4 pages Tony E. McCaffity PSY390 Learning and Cognition Individual Programmatic Assessment: Operant Conditioning October 27, 2014 Describe the theory of Operant Conditioning The theory of Operant Conditioning is developed the behaviorist B. F. Skinner. Operant Conditioning according to Skinner is based on the observing the causes of the action and its consequences. Skinner’s used this

Classical Conditioning - 779 words

779 words - 4 pages Classical Conditioning PSY 390 1/18/2013 Bree Kinasewitz | In the following paper Classical conditioning will be looked at and explained, not only from the perspective of previous research but also on a day to day basis. Classical conditioning is an explanation not only on how an organism learns but also why they learn certain behaviors and reactions. It is the hope of the author to help to explain this process in a manner that not only

Operant Conditioning - 608 words

608 words - 3 pages Operant Conditioning for Addictions Operant conditioning is the second learning principle. This type of learning occurs due to the cause-and-effect relationship between a behavior and its consequences. Operant conditioning has a common sense element. When we reward a behavior, it increases. When we punish a behavior, it decreases. A substance or activity can only become addictive if it is rewarding; i.e., if it is pleasurable or enjoyable (at

Operant Conditioning - 591 words

591 words - 3 pages Operant Conditioning Pamela Combs PS124: Introduction to Psychology Kaplan University June 9, 2014 Operant conditioning is a method of learning base upon a system of rewards and punishments to change behavior. In other words, psychologist use positive and negative reinforcement or positive and negative punishment to change behavior using a basic cause and effect method. Psychologist Edward L. Thorndike was the first to study operant

Related Essays

Conditioning Essay

5151 words - 21 pages my paper does not contain any of the following phrases and/or any similar phrases: “In a study conducted by”, “the study conducted by”, etc. | | I have made sure my paper does not include any personal pronouns such as “I”, “my” “mine”, and “our”, “ours” “us”, “we” or any similar pronouns. | | When explaining studies, I have written in the past tense. | How Organism Learn: Classical & Operant Conditioning Applying Operant &amp

Conditioning Essay

1680 words - 7 pages PAPER #1: CONDITIONING Definition of classical conditioning Classical conditioning is defined in Psychology as “a process by which a stimulus that previously did not elicit a response comes to elicit a response, in reflex—like fashion, after it is paired with one or more trials with a stimulus that already elicits a response” (Gray, 1999, p 100). Having to do with the reflexes, the definition of classical condition can be abbreviated into

Conditioning Essay

922 words - 4 pages Learning Theory is the work of Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov. It is he who discovered the principles on how human and animals learn. Learning is defined as a permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience. There are two kinds of learning or conditioning: Classical conditioning is one of many different types of learning. One instance would be when a person learns to relate a signal with a meaning on how the two are presented

Classical Conditioning Essay 1232 Words

1232 words - 5 pages Classical Conditioning Lon H. Gray University of Phoenix PSY/390 Learning and Cognition SC11BSP07 April 11, 2012 Dr. Rick Bazant Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov is the father of classical conditioning, a learning theory that is also called Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlov was a Russian physiologist centered in experimental science, in which his experiments were novel and innovative. Pavlov and his team accidently discovered