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Computers: Tools For An Information Age

1331 words - 6 pages

Computers: Tools for an Information Age
Chapter 6 Storage and Multimedia: The Facts and More

Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall

Secondary Storage
• Separate from the computer itself • Software and data stored on a semipermanent basis
– Unlike memory, not lost when power is lost

• Benefits

Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall

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Benefits of Secondary Storage
• • • • Space Reliability Convenience Economy

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Space
• Store a roomful of data on disks smaller than the size of a breadbox
– Diskette contains equivalent of 500 printed pages – Optical disk can hold equivalent of 500 books

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ble in 100, 250, and 750 MB versions Return
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Hard Disks
• Rigid platter coated with magnetic oxide
– Several can be combined into a disk pack

• Disk drive - a device that allows data to be read from or written to a disk
– Disk drive for personal computers contained within computer housing – Large computer systems may have several external disk drives
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Reading/Writing Data
• Access arm moves read/write head over particular location • Read/write head hovers a few millionths of an inch above platter
– If head touches platter, a head crash occurs and data is destroyed – Data can be destroyed if head touches miniscule foreign matter on surface of disk

Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall

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Disk Packs
• Each platter has its own access arm with read/write head • Most disk packs combine platters, access arms, and read/write head

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Hard Disks for Personal Computers
• Sealed modules that mount in a 3 ½” bay • Capacity in gigabytes • Accessing files much faster than accessing files on diskettes • Some contain removable cartridges
– Iomega’s Jaz drive is very popular

Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall

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Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
• A group of disks that work together as one
– Raid level 0 spreads data from a single file over several drives
• Called data striping • Increases performance

– Raid level 1 duplicates data on several drives
• Called disk mirroring • Increases fault tolerance

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How Data Is Organized
• • • • Track Sector Cluster Cylinder

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Track
• The circular portion of the disk surface that passes under the read/write head
– Floppy diskette has 80 tracks on each surface – Hard disk may have 1,000 or more tracks on each surface of each platter

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Sector
• Each track is divided into sectors that hold a fixed number of bytes
– Typically 512 bytes per sector

• Zone recording assigns more sectors to tracks in outer zones than those in inner zones
– Uses storage space more fully
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Cluster
• A fixed number of adjacent sectors that are treated as a unit of storage
– Typically two to eight sectors, depending on the operating system

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Cylinder
• The track on each surface that is beneath the read/write head at a given position of the read/write heads
– When file is larger than the capacity of a single track, operating system will store it in tracks within the same cylinder

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Copyright © 2003 by Prentice Hall 19

Disk Access Speed
• Access time - the time needed to access data on disk • Three factors
– Seek time – Head switching – Rotational delay

• Once data found, next step is data transfer

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