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Comprehension Aided By The Use Of Schemas And Scripts

2140 words - 9 pages

The focus of the essay will be placed upon the comprehension of text aided by the use of schemas and scripts. The two will be examined and thier practicality explained. A discussion about the importance of an any given level of prior knowledge about the world, with regards text comprehension, will be faced before describing the two systems, as this is fudamental. The work of researchers that accept schemas and scripts as valid models will be looked at along with those who proposed new and alternative models. Through discussing the important role played by the two systems the limits boud to them will also be analyzed.Important, above all, is to contextualize the accademic area concerned with ...view middle of the document...

They regarded strategies to be different, and superior, from skills in the respect that they involve selecting, co-ordinating and applying skills to address a desired goal. They are required to be more flexible than skills, which are on the other hand more specific or " reflexive" in nature because learned within the context of specific areas or situations ( Lawson-Striker, 2006).Strategies can be of a cognitive nature when referring to inner mental process aimed at carrying out specific tasks. Two of those that are thought to play a part in text comprehension are schemas and scripts which will be describes shortly.The ultimate goal we strive to acheive through the use of strategies such as schemas and scripts is a precise and accurate understanding of text. This is only guaranteed by an essential prerequisite: an already present understanding of the world. Numerous studies have demonstrated that comprehension also involves access to knowledge about the world. Readers must be able to make inferences that connect explicit information in a text to relevant world knowledge, if this does not occur they feel as though they have not comprehended the text and have difficulty remembering it ( Britton and Graesser, 1996). A similar theory of text comprehension was proposed by Van Dijk and Kintch (1983) where three levels of internal representation are thought to be required in comprehension and in which the role of prior knowledge is explicit. McKoon and Ratcliff (1992) argue that though both interpretation and meaning play important roles in comprehension they belive that text representation is comprised almost solely by the later; this is constructed by means of linguistic processes, such as word decoding, syntactic and semantic analyses.As seen in the theories mentioned there is a common belief among experts in the field that information about specific entities, contexts and events extracted from a particular text is stored in the mind and this knowledge must be accessed to enable comprehension of text. Furthermore the notion that this information is then used to create internal or mental representations of any kind is also widely shared. Two typologies of representation which act as mental stategies aimed at comprehending text are schemas and scripts. Both will now be explained.The tem schema was first introduced by Piaget in 1926 and he applies the concept to his theory of developement. Years later R. C. Anderson expanded the meaning of the term and developed schema theory. A schema is a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. Piaget defined schema as a cognitive representationof activities or things. When a baby is born it will have an innate schema for sucking in order to ensure that it can feed and therefore grow. As the baby grows this schema will be integrated with other feeding schemas as the baby's experience and nutrition changes ( Lisa Oakley, 2004, page 14).Piaget belived that everyone is born with a set of schemas ,...

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