Competencia Desleal Essay

1363 words - 6 pages

TEMA 4: ESTRUCTURAS ORGANIZATIVAS.
1. LA DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN.
La departamentalización es el proceso por el cual se agrupan tareas en unidades organizacionales de orden inferior, y estas en unidades de orden superior. La departamentalización estimula la coordinación dentro de las unidades organizacionales, pero la desestimula (la organización) entre ellas.
No hay una departamentalización ideal. Podemos encontrar las siguientes:
* Por líneas de producto.
* Por clientes.
* Por zonas geográficas.
* Por funciones.
* Por procesos.
DEPARTAMENTALIZACION POR LINEAS DE PRODUCTOS.
D.GENERAL
JEFE DE PRODUCCIÓN
AUTOMÓVILES
AUTOCARES
VEHÍCULOS INDUSTRIALES

La ...view middle of the document...

INCONVENIENTES.
* Subutilización de instalaciones y personal.
* Difícil coordinación interdepartamental.
DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN POR ZONAS GEOGRÁFICAS.
DIRECTOR GENERAL
VICEP.
REGIÓN SUR
VICEP.REGIÓN CENTRO-OESTE
VICEP. REGIÓN COSTA OESTE

PRODUCCIÓN
DISTRIBUCIÓN
RELACIONES INDUSTRIALES

Este tipo de departamentalización se suele dar en grandes empresas con operaciones físicamente dispersas. Es adecuada cuando el éxito depende del ajuste a las condiciones locales.
VENTAJAS.
* Participación local en la toma de decisiones.
* Mejora la coordinación regional.
* Proporciona adiestramiento a futuros directivos.
* Se tiende a pensar en el éxito general.
* Mejor control de los resultados.
* Puede reducir costes operativos.
* Mano de obra local especializada.
* Reduce tiempos de entrega.
* Mayor conocimiento del mercado.
INCONVENIENTES.
* Duplicación de servicios.
* Multiplica el número de administradores.
* Menor calidad técnica del producto (disminuye la importancia de los especialistas funcionales).
* Posible merma en la seguridad de los empleados.
DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN FUNCIONAL.
DIRECTOR GENERAL
COMERCIALIZACIÓN
PRODUCCIÓN
FINANZAS
PERSONAL

I
+D

La departamentalización funcional es adecuada para pequeñas empresas, con una línea de productos limitados y un entorno estable.
Se caracteriza por tener personal especializado (eficiencia) y ser centralizada, lo que facilita el control funcional. Hay que mencionar que los objetivos funcionales están descoordinados con los objetivos globales.
VENTAJAS.
* Orienta a las personas a una actividad clara.
* Estimula la especialización y la eficiencia alcanzándose un nivel técnico más elevado.
* Estimula el desarrollo profesional.
* Los directivos tienen conocimientos técnicos.
* Mejora la capacitación profesional.
INCONVENIENTES.
* Disminuye cooperación interdepartamental.
* Podrían sacrificarse los objetivos generales.
* Pueden generarse lealtades departamentales.
* Difícil control.
* Los problemas que afectan a varios departamentos se tratan por la dirección general lo que conlleva retrasos.
* Reduce la innovación.
DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN POR PROCESOS.
DIRECTOR GENERAL
TORNOS
TRATAMIENTO
DE MATERIALES
POR CALOR
PINTURA

Esta departamentalización estimula la división del trabajo en fases, de las cuales se encargará cada departamento. Tiene la ventaja de una buena especialización, pero a la vez aparecen dificultades de coordinación.
ESTRUCTURA PRIMARIA VERSUS ESTRUCTURA OPERATIVA.
Estructura primaria: Es la desagregación de la empresa en sus principales unidades organizativas (departamentos, divisiones, …), en función de las actividades y/o negocios en los que está comprometida. El objetivo es dar respuesta a la estrategia corporativa (diversificación, internacionalización). Se establece:
* Formas simples: simple y funcional.
* Formas compuestas: divisional y...

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