Compare and contrast how the psychodynamic and person-centred approaches to counselling understand the person, and how these two approaches explain psychological distress experienced by individuals. In Part 2 reflect on and write about which of the two approaches appeals most to you and why?
A comparison of psychodynamic approach and people centred approaches to counselling
The psychodynamic approach was developed by Sigmund Freud. Its aim was to bring to awareness the inner emotional world of the client in order to improve their capacity to relate to others and to value themselves as they really are.
Freud believed that our thoughts and behaviour are influenced by unconscious ...view middle of the document...
Some of the main ones are Repression, drawing into the unconscious. Regression, returning to a previous stage of development. Displacement, taking out impulses on another target. Projection, placing undesirable instincts in yourself onto someone else. Rationalization, giving a rational reason instead of the real one. Denial, arguing against an anxious mater by pretending it doesn’t exist. Suppression, pushing into the unconscious. Sublimation, using unacceptable impulses in an accepted way and reaction formation, believing the opposite of what is true to avoid anxiety. (Malan,1979 as cited in McLeod,2008,pp96)
Freud went on from this to develop the theory that the personality progressed in five stages, which he called the Psychosexual stages of development. During each of the stages the pleasure seeking impulses of the id known as the libido focus on a particular area of the body and the activities connected with it.
The first stage is the oral stage, which is the first year of life. The focus of pleasurable sensation is the mouth. The second stage is the anal stage, the focus of pleasure is the anal cavity. The third stage is the phallic stage, happening around the fourth and fifth years, focus is the genitals. It is during this stage that afraid believed the child desire to dominate the parent of the opposite sex, this is called the Oedipus complex. The next stage is the latency stage which occurs from the end of the phallic stage until puberty. This stage see sexual impulses being pushed into the unconscious and focus is learning skills to cope with the environment. The final stage is the genital stage this begins at puberty until the person reaches mature adult sexuality.(Freud, as cited in McLeod, 2008)
Carl Rogers was an important contributor to The person centre approach, part of humanistic psychology and believes that that every individual has the ability to create a more positive, and satisfying, way of living.(Rogers. 1942 as cited in McLeod,2008) The American psychologist who first began formulating the person-centred approach in the 1930s and 1940s focused on the subjective world of the individual, and was heavily influenced by phenomenology. It is a holistic approach to the person, that integrates the body, mind and the behaviour of the individual with social and cultural forces.
The person-centred approach distinctive feature is that the person has to become fully functioning - actualized() In allowing themselves to be self actualized and loved and valued buy others, there ideal self is congruent with their actual self. To do this they must follow 3 “necessary and sufficient” conditions to enable the change in behaviour(.(Rogers.1961).
The three basic conditions that will assist the individual to become the person they really are . The first is Unconditional positive regard, the individual is not judged and is free to delve into any thoughts and feelings without the pressure of being disapproved .there...