‘Compare And Comment On The Economic And Social Effects Of Flooding In Two Contrasting Areas Of The World’ (15 Marks)

1360 words - 6 pages

The Comparison between social and economics issues of flooding can be seen in the examples of Pakistan and Cumbria, Both these places have seen floods effecting economic and social issues. Flooding is a naturally occurring event that can be influenced or effected by human intervention, it occurs when discharge of a river exceeds the banks full capacity in a river channel. Floods are triggered by an increase in water volume that can be affected by many different factors, giving it great effect on human inhabitance in locations close to rivers situated around a floodplain.

Pakistan has had a generally weak economy with a GDP per capita of about $2,710 and Cumbria with a GDP of $37,356 this ...view middle of the document...

Although Pakistan has little economic activity this has spurred them to cultivate and gather resources. These have caused a decrease in infiltration and increased surface runoff, seen through the large amounts of deforestation taken place by Pakistan.

Absolute Economic impacts in Cumbria (MEDC) will be higher than Pakistan (LEDC) due to the high value buildings and infrastructure. However the relative economic impacts will be lower for Cumbria and higher for Pakistan. This is because on average buildings and crops are damaged and will affect the economy greater because there is less money available to recover from it. Rescue work and repairs for damaged infrastructure are very costly, Cumbria has put forward about £2.5million dollars towards the protection of Floods while Pakistan has still yet to react as rebuilding efforts are still going on. This is due to monetary problems with the economy that don’t allow it to put up management schemes. When floods occur there is usually a loss in jobs due to services being shut down. This can be due to water reaching electrical cables and blowing power or the hydraulic power of water destroying shop items, leading to an increase in the unemployment rates. The only difference between Cumbria and Pakistan is that Cumbria will be able to get its employment levels up with reserve money saved. This will be used to stimulate the economy through money put into infrastructure and services, allowing people get back to work quicker. Pakistan on the other hand will be less effective raising employment rates due to the its little spend power and expenditure towards helping business and other services, factory outlets. Public transport, Roads and bridges can be destroyed during floods due to either blockage with water, or destruction of infrastructure leaving both countries to pay for the redevelopment; loss in transport and infrastructure also stops jobs short term and in some cases long term, due to lack of transport links. Pakistan being a LEDC would be expected to have considerably less problems with its Infrastructure and transport links due to it not having many. When flooding occurs it usually always sources around a flood plane this means that the first thing to be effected are crops. While they may not contribute as much in Cumbria for Pakistan agriculture counts for 21.2% of its Gross National income (GNP) meaning that flooding leads to a major decrease in GDP. If crops are badly affected, as they need to wait for the next seasonal flourish, this can too affect the public rather than the farmers, as food will become scarce and subsequently more expensive. These effects could be seen on Cumbria as farmers growing local foods, will have to make their produce more expensive to compensate for the lack in supply.

Although there are many economic effects on flooding, there are also large amounts of social impacts ranging from loss of homes to disease. One of these Social...

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