Community Based Rehabilitation for PWDs
Introduction: Definition and meaning of concepts
Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) focuses on enhancing the quality of life for people with disabilities and their families, meeting basic needs and ensuring inclusion and participation. CBR was initiated in the mid-1980s but has evolved to become a multi-sectoral strategy that empowers persons with disabilities to access and benefit from education, employment/vocational, health and other social services. CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of people with disabilities, their families, relevant government and non-government organizations and communities.
CBR is "a strategy within ...view middle of the document...
CBR is implemented through the combined efforts of people with disabilities themselves, their families and communities, and the provision of appropriate health, education, vocational and social services.
The aim of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is to help people with disabilities, by establishing community-based programs for social integration, equalization of opportunities, and rehabilitation programs for the disabled. The strength of CBR programs is that they can be made available in rural areas with limited infrastructure, as program leadership is not restricted to professionals in healthcare, education, vocational or social services. Rather, CBR programs involve the people with disabilities themselves, their families and communities, as well as appropriate professionals.
The Disability Process
It is difficult to define disability but the WHO (1981) defines the disability process as the health changes which may appear as long-term consequences of a disease, an accident or genetic disturbance. This process starts with impairments which lead to disabilities, which later lead to handicap. Impairment; is defined as any loss or abnormality of psychological or anatomical structure or functioning. Disability; this is defined as any restriction or lack of the ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. Handicap; is defined as a disadvantage for a given individual that limits or prevents fulfillment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex, and social cultural factors) for the individual. Therefore the disability process may be viewed as reduced capacity to perform, (impairment), reduced performance of activities (disability) and reduced social roles (handicap)
Types of disabling conditions
✓ Physical or motor problem: These include all sorts of physical disabilities for example loss of an upper or lower limb or part of the limb, paraplegia (paralysis of the legs and lower body).
✓ Sensory problems: These include visual and auditory impairments or blindness and deafness and associated speech problems.
✓ Mental problems: These included psychiatric illness and behavioral problems, slow learning and intellectual impairment.
✓ Multiple disabilities: This means that one suffers from disabilities from various domains (two or more) such as mental and physical components.
Major causes of impairment/disability
✓ Communicable diseases e.g. measles, leprosy, polio, river blindness, AIDS;
✓ Non-communicable diseases e.g. epilepsy, cancer, diabetes, respiratory problems;
✓ Malnutrition and under nutrition;
✓ Female genital mutilation;
✓ Chronic alcohol and drug abuse;
✓ Hereditary factors;
✓ Home accidents;
✓ Traffic accidents;
✓ Prenatal and birth related complications;
✓ work accidents;
✓ Natural calamities/disasters etc…
Reading Assignment: During their revision, students are to generate ...