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Communication Studies Essay

1637 words - 7 pages

BAB 1
PENGENALAN

1.1 Latar Belakang Kajian
Secara umumnya, media massa memainkan peranan yang signifikan dalam kehidupan seharian manusia. Manusia tidak dapat mengelakkan diri daripada menggunakan media massa. Media merupakan alat perantaraan yang menjadi penghubung antara pemilik media dan orang ramai. Menurut Mus Chairil Samani (2001) media adalah wahana atau alat penyalur yang mengendong mesej. Mesej yang dikendong pula wujud sama ada dalam bentuk maklumat untuk pengetahuan umum, membujuk mahupun sebagai satu alat hiburan. Mesej-mesej tersebut diperolehi melalui media yang semakin berkembang kini seperti surat khabar, majalah, iklan, filem, radio, televisyen dan komputer.
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Televisyen mempunyai tanggungjawab sosial yang perlu dipenuhi. Larsen (dipetik dari Scott Mc Lean, 2003) berpendapat bahawa televisyen telah memberi sumbangan dalam penidikan dan hiburan, namun televisyen juga dikatakan gagal berbuat demikian. Terdapat beberapa kritikan terhadap fungsi televisyen sebagai alat yang penting dalam pendidikan kanak-kanak program-program sosial yang ditayangkan di televisyen. Antaranya rancangan “Sesame Street” yang dikatakan dapat merangsang tabiat membaca pada peringkat awal umur serta
dapat merangsang kemahiran lain kepada kanak-kanak.
Menurut McQuail (1989) pula, antara fungsi lain televisyen terhadap masyarakat adalah untuk menyatakan budaya, membantu dalam proses sosialisasi dan membantu melahirkan budaya baru. Menurutnya lagi, televisyen juga berfungsi untuk meneguhkan nilai murni, membantu dalam proses integrasi dan interaksi sosial.
Tidak dinafikan televisyen merupakan salah satu bentuk media massa yang menjadi satu keperluan yang sangat penting dan mampu dimiliki oleh setiap keluarga. Kesibukan dengan komitmen pekerjaan membuatkan ibu bapa kurang meluangkan masa bersama anak-anak. Ini menyebabkan ibu bapa tidak dapat memantau aktiviti-aktiviti yang dilakukan oleh anak-anak terutamanya berumur yang 12 tahun ke bawah. Bukan itu sahaja, sesetengah suri rumah turut menggunakan televisyen sebagai “pengasuh/penjaga” terhadap anak-anak mereka disebabkan tidak mempunyai masa untuk menjaga anak-anak. Golongan suri rumah lebih sibuk melakukan kerja-kerja rumah seperti memasak, mengemas dan sebagainya. Disebabkan itu, anak-anak lebih banyak meluangkan masa mereka dengan menonton televisyen berbanding melakukan aktiviti-aktiviti lain seperti mengulangkaji mata pelajaran, bermain dengan rakan-rakan dan sebagainya.
Kanak-kanak pada zaman ini kebanyakannya diberi pendedahan tanpa batasan terhadap sumber teknologi yang berunsur kuning, keganasan atau kezaliman, yang berpotensi untuk membentuk sikap yang negatif dan personaliti yang negatif. Televisyen misalnya merupakan satu contoh alat yang banyak mempengaruhi tingkah laku kanak-kanak. Dalam ledakan teknologi dan media, kanak-kanak mudah dipengaruhi oleh ejen sosialisasi seperti media.
Menurut kajian Christakis, Zimmerman,DiGiuseppe & McCarty (2004) secara purata kanak-kanak berusia satu tahun menonton televisyen 2.2 jam setiap hari dan 3.6 jam sehari bagi kanak-kanak yang berusia 3 tahun. Dalam kajian lain yang dilakukan oleh Persatuan Pengguna Pulau Pinang (2006), secara purata kanak-kanak di Malaysia menonton televisyen kurang 2-3 jam pada hari biasa dan akan menonton 3-4 jam pada hari minggu. Berdasarkan kajian di atas, walaupun mereka tidak memahami seratus peratus apa yang dipaparkan di televisyen, namun harus diingat bahawa mereka sudah dapat mencerap pergerakan objek dan memahami pertukaran imej melalui apa yang dipertontonkan di skrin televisyen. Kesannya, ia akan meninggalkan pengaruh yang besar dan sangat mudah untuk meresap dalam jiwa...

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