Cultures are typically divided into two categories: collectivist and individualist. Individualist cultures, such as those of the United States and Western Europe, emphasize personal achievement at the expense of group goals, resulting in a strong sense of competition. Collectivist cultures, such as those of China, Russia, and Japan, emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires.
Collectivism and individualism deeply pervade cultures. People simply take their culture's stance for granted.
Both collectivist and individualistic cultures have their failings. People in individualist cultures are susceptible to loneliness, and people in collectivist cultures can have a strong fear of rejection.
Traits of Collectivism
* Each person is encouraged to be an active player in society, to do what is best for society as a whole rather than themselves.
* The rights of families, communities, and the ...view middle of the document...
* Relying or being dependent on others is frequently seen as shameful.
* People are encouraged to do things on their own; to rely on themselves
Russia is a collectivist society. The origins of Russian collectivism can be seen from prehistoric times. Members of early Russia worked as a group in order to survive under harsh conditions.
Orthodox believers de-emphasize independence and self-reliance in thinking. From a cultural standpoint, Russia never experienced a Renaissance where individual creativity took precedence. Russia never experienced a religious Reformation to influence individual reading of scripture and personal salvation. In terms of Russia’s political dominance, they have normally been under authoritarian rule and have remained relatively sheltered from outside contact.
An important element in the Russian communal mindset is a strongsense of egalitarianism. This does not just refer to fairness and equal opportunity, but a deeply held conviction that wealth should be equally distributed. In contrast to the Western drive to work hard and be as successful as possible, Russians traditionally believe that a financial focus is ill suited, particularly if it is at the expense of others.
The interdependence found in Russian culture reflects a biblical worldview. Russians can be viewed as "being" as opposed to "doing". "Doing" cultures assess value by how much people accomplish while "being" cultures are more concerned about their relationships and tend to live for the moment and take life as it comes.
Russia is said to be more collectivist. Russia also desires a large power distance and has a high uncertainty avoidance
The marks of a collectivist society include interdependence, an emotional connection to the group, and a desire from group harmony. Russian collectivism can be described as being horizontal collectivism. The self is part of the in-group and everyone holds a similar status.
Also, Russia has a high level of uncertainty avoidance. This means that their culture feels highly threatened or anxious by unknown or uncertain events. Russia is uncomfortable with technology, change, and ambiguity. Their structure and clear expectations of citizens is highly valued.