Cohort Follow Up Studies: Cardiovascular Disease (Cvd)

1542 words - 7 pages

Causes of cardiovascular disease
While cardiovascular disease can refer to many different types of heart or blood vessel problems, the term is often used to mean damage caused to your heart or blood vessels by atherosclerosis (ath-ur-o-skluh-RO-sis), a build-up of fatty plaques in your arteries. This is a disease that affects your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body. Healthy arteries are flexible and strong.
Over time, however, too much pressure in your arteries can make the walls thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. This process is called arteriosclerosis, or hardening of ...view middle of the document...

Research has found that a 12- to 13-point reduction in blood pressure can reduce deaths from cardiovascular disease by 25 percent. A 10 percent decrease in total blood cholesterol levels may reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease by as much as 30 percent. Both blood pressure and cholesterol can be lowered by following a regular physical activity program, like the Curves workout, and establishing healthier eating habits. (Rodman)
Certain types of heart disease, such as heart defects, can't be prevented. However, you can help prevent many other types of heart disease by making the same lifestyle changes that can improve your heart disease, such as:
* Quit smoking
* Control other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes
* Exercise at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week
* Eat a diet that's low in salt and saturated fat
* Maintain a healthy weight
* Reduce and manage stress
* Practice good hygiene
Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases is the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).
Cardiovascular diseases include the following;
• Aneurysm
• Angina
• Atherosclerosis
• Cerebrovascular disease
• Congestive Heart Failure
• Coronary Artery Disease
• Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack)
• Peripheral vascular disease
Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty material collects along the walls of arteries. This fatty material thickens, hardens (forms calcium deposits), and may eventually block the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. The two terms are often used to mean the same thing.
Atherosclerosis is a common disorder that specifically affects the medium and large arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques.
Eventually, the plaques can make the artery narrow and less flexible, making it harder for blood to flow. If the coronary arteries become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop. This can cause chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack, and other symptoms.
Pieces of plaque can break off and move through the affected artery to smaller blood vessels, blocking them and causing tissue damage or death (embolization). This is a common cause of heart attack and stroke. Blood clots can also form around a tear (fissure) in the plaque leading to blocked blood flow. If the clot moves into an artery in the heart, lungs, or brain, it can cause a stroke, heart attack, or pulmonary embolism. In some cases, the atherosclerotic plaque is associated with a weakening of the wall of an artery leading to an aneurysm.
• Heavy alcohol use
• High blood pressure
• High blood cholesterol levels
• High-fat diet
• Increasing age
• Obesity
• Personal or family history of heart disease
An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of...

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