Overall theory. Andrea Allen and Celia Lo wanted to devise their research from Elijah Anderson’s, “The Code of the Streets,” that intended to analyze the behavior aspect of young males particularly black urban males that were either incarcerated or attending school. According to Anderson, the apparent problem in inner-city communities is that they are controlled by violence and the unspoken street codes. In a glimpse the street codes is all about self-imaginary and façade that resembles toughness, in which this simple concept on the street defines a person. Therefore Allen and Lo wanted to do a continuation of Anderson’s study by observing the behavior of young males on the aspects of ...view middle of the document...
Allen and Lo included females as well as other races, but they more wanted to observe the drastic difference that black males would have compared amongst other groups.
According to Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory, Allen and Lo concept follows along with the guidelines by demonstrating how the code of street can dictate young males behavior of drug trafficking and firearm carrying, which can ultimately lead them to a life of crime. Thus, the code of the street behavior is learned because of the inner-city poor neighborhood, age, and race. These are factors that lead to why young males possess firearms while being involved in drug dealing.
According to Acker’s Social Learning Theory, an extension of Sutherland’s theory, Allen and Lo study involves testing their theory based on self-reports that defines the meaning of the street code to each youth based on their “differential association” with deviant characters. So, interpreting the meaning of the street code also resembles the youths’ “imitation” of peer groups, family, and their society. They are obeying the street code in which it was learned from their poor neighborhood filled with deviant peers.
Research question and/or hypotheses being tested. There are two research questions that Allen and Lo addressed in their study. First, what effect does living in the inner-city and adapting to the code of the street have on the deviant behavior, such as firearm carrying? Second, is there a variation by race that h youths’ code of the street have on the deviant behavior of armed drug trafficking? Based on these questions, they hypothesized that carrying guns and drug dealing is a common behavior that will occur to male youths living by the code of the streets in poor inner-cities.
The population/sample under study. The sample included 835 incarcerated males from six correctional institutions and 1,663 high school males and females students from ranging from ten inner-city public schools in grades 9 -12 from four different states (Allen & Lo, 2010). The sample came from Louisiana, New Jersey, California, and Illinois. The schools were not randomly chosen, but were chosen based on their proximity to the juvenile detentions within the study.
How the tested variables are related to the theory (if applicable). The dependent variables, drug dealing and gun carrying are types of deviant behaviors that can be included in Sutherland’s and Acker’s theories. These behaviors are leading causes to crime that the theory suggested and that the study tested for. The independent variables, lack of father, “employment status,” and history of school behavior are related to theory because these are aspects that can lead to crime and how crime is learned. Their learned behavior is...