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Cluster Strategy Essay

2218 words - 9 pages

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1. Die Vernetzung in Clustern als Kooperationsstrategie
1.1 Definition und Abgrenzung des Clusterbegriffs Dem multiperspektivischen Clusterkonzept1 gehen regionalökonomische Konzepte wie der „Industriedistrikt“ nach lieus“ nach
GREMI
2

MARSHALL

oder „Innovative Mi-

voraus. In der Praxis werden zahlreiche z.T. konträre

Definitionen und Auslegungen des Clusterbegriffs verwendet,3 die durch das Fehlen einer allgemeinen Theorie und konzeptionelle Unschärfe begründet werden.4 Als Grundlage dieser Arbeit soll PORTER‘S Clusterkonzept dienen, welches den Begriff maßgeblich geprägt hat.5 Es hat sich aus der verdichteten ...view middle of the document...

30-32. Vgl. Kralemann (2007), S. 42-45. Vgl. Kiese (2010), S. 60. Vgl. ebenda, S. 42. Der „Portersche Diamant“ setzt sich aus den Kategorien Faktorbedingungen, Nachfragebedingungen, verwandte und unterstützende Branchen sowie Kontext für Strategie und Wettbewerb zusammen. Diese konstituieren die Determinanten des nationalen Wettbewerbsvorteils und schaffen durch ihre Interdependenz clusterfördernde Umweltbedingungen. Vgl. für eine detaillierte Betrachtung Porter (2000), S. 166-183, 213. Vgl. ebenda, S. 199. Vgl. derselbe (1998), S. 79. Vgl. Porter (2000), S. 199-205. In der Praxis wird dies u.a. durch räumlich-sektorale Konzentrationsmaßzahlen, Gutachten oder Input-Output-Analysen identifiziert. Vgl. Kiese (2010), S. 62-67.

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als Wettbewerb gekennzeichnet und zumeist durch zielorientiertere und intensivere Strukturen charakterisiert.11 Da Netzwerke jedoch sowohl Bestandteil als auch Ergebnis erfolgreicher Cluster sein können und mitunter als operative Clusterebene interpretiert werden,12 bilden sie im späteren Verlauf der Arbeit den Analysegegenstand. Obwohl kein universales Lebenszyklusmodell determiniert ist, durchlaufen Cluster im Allgemeinen eine Entstehungs-, Wachstums- und Reifephase. Diese münden zumeist in Niedergang oder Transformation des Clusters.13 14 1.2 Erfolgsfaktoren erfolgreicher Clusterentwicklung Die Hauptdeterminante des Übergangs eines Clusters in die Wachstumsphase ist das Erreichen einer kritischen Masse.15 Diese Entwicklung kann vom Vorhandensein der Diamantenfaktoren,16 der Abwägung erfolgskritischer Standortfaktoren17 oder der Charakterisierung der Branche als Träger von implizitem, komplexem Wissen unterstützt werden.18 Laut KETELS liegt das Haupterfolgskriterium in der „Bereitschaft zur Zusammenarbeit“19.
VAN DEN BERG

et al. nahmen 2001 in einer europäischen Studie einen Ver-

such zur Systematisierung von Erfolgsfaktoren vor.20 Sie teilten diese in die Kategorien räumlich-ökonomische und clusterspezifische Bedingungen sowie Organisationskapazität auf. Zu räumlich-ökonomischen Bedingungen gehört die Existenz einer anspruchsvollen lokalen Nachfrage und interne Erreichbarkeit der Akteure zur Förderung von Interaktion sowie die externe Zugänglichkeit des Clusters über Infrastruktur. Auch kulturelle Faktoren wie Kooperationsbereitschaft sind wichtige Erfolgsdeterminanten der Clusterentwicklung. Neben diesen räumlichen Bedingungen, können auch clusterspezifische Aspekte wie gewachsene Infrastruktur und spezialisierungs!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
11 12 13 14

15 16 17 18 19 20

Vgl. Rosenfeld (1997), S. 8f. Vgl. für vertiefende Details Kaminski (2009), S. 29; Vieregge (2011), S. 65. Vgl. Schramm-Klein (2005), S. 540-542; Porter (1998), S. 84f. Entlang des Entwicklungszyklus existieren weiterführende Forschungsfelder, die über den Rahmen dieser Arbeit hinausgehen. Für detaillierte Betrachtungen zu Clusterinitiativen...

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