Running head: CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
The purpose of this paper is to examine clinical psychology. Part of this papers discussion will be the history and evolving nature of clinical counseling psychology. Research and statistics play an important part of clinical counseling psychology and will be examined. In conclusion a comparison to other forms of psychology will be made.
The evolution or history of psychology starts as early as the Greeks where the mind and body were interconnected with the health and illness of an individual. Hippocrates focused on four bodily fluids which were the blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm in which an individual’s ...view middle of the document...
Medical discoveries such as the heart being the facet that circulates the blood eliminated previous notions that body fluid imbalances were the cause of mental health issues (Plante, 2005). Medical development seemed to soar while mental health issues lagged behind as can be seen with the care of individuals in mental health hospitals and asylums where they were treated more like prisoners (Deckers, 2005).
The 19th century held promising accomplishments by physicians. Illnesses and disease were linked to microorganisms, germs and some medical issues could be traced to genetics, environmentally influenced, or at a cellular level, just as the mental illness caused by syphilis was discovered to be sexually transmitted impacting the functions of the brain and an individual’s ability to remain emotionally stable (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Several physicians within the 19th century wrote books and publishing’s in which disease could stem from pathological issues of the mind (Plante, 2005). This led to people like Dorothea Dix who fought for the improvement of mental health facilities and humane treatment of individuals who are mentally ill. Through improved technology and methodology, classifications for diagnosing an individual’s abnormal behaviors began. These factors led to the birth of psychology (Plante, 2005).
Clinical psychology; however, occurred several years after the birth of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1892 where Wilhelm Wundt became the first individual to combine theoretical principles of an individuals behaviors to help with that individuals issues (Boyd & Bee, 2006). Some of Wundt’s publishing can be seen in clinics today such as his multidisciplinary team approach. In the following years individual’s such as Sigmund Freud, Alfred Binet, Carl Jung, Clifford Beers, and many others influenced psychology until in 1909 APA formed a section for clinical psychology (Plante, 2005). Many things occurred to influence clinical psychology, but it wasn’t until World War II, that a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was geared for an individual assessment of psychological issues and was used for the overwhelming need of the veterans returning from war (Denise & Helen, 2006). From this point several approaches developed such as the family system, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, and behavioral approaches were developed and were an alternative to the psychodynamic approach (Plante, 2005). Even though the APA has stood in the way of the development of clinical psychology it has grown into a field which is exciting and promising for the future (Plante, 2005).
Research and statistics demonstrate an imperative position in clinical counseling psychology. Practitioners rely on the answers provided by research and statistics in order to treat, diagnose and comprehend human behaviors, hence, allowing the practitioners the accessibility to new theories which have established relevance (Grant & Adams, 2009)....