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Classificaion Of Scandium And Zinc Are Not Transitional Metal Base On Their General Chemistry And Properties

2452 words - 10 pages

IntroductionThe three series of elements situated in the periodic table following the alkaline earth metals are described as transition metal; this term is sometime extended to include the lanthanide and actinide elements.There position in the periodic table is between the s-block and p-block elements, their properties are transitional between the highly reactive metallic elements in the s-block, which typically form ionic compounds, and the elements of the p-block, which are largely covalent. In the s- and p-block electrons are added to the outer shell of the atom, in the d-block electrons are added to the penultimate shell explaining from 8 to 18 electrons. The transitional elements ...view middle of the document...

The rest of the transition series follows an similar trend, by varying the number of d-electrons used in bonding, varying oxidation states would result (see table)3) They have an unparallel propensity for forming co-ordination compounds with Lewis base, coordination compounds (or complex) is formed when a Lewis base (ligand) is attached to a Lewis acid (acceptor) by means of a lone-pair of electrons. Where the ligand is composed of a number of atoms, the one directly attached to the acceptor is called the ''donor atom'' this type of bonding is exemplified by the addition compounds formed by the trihalides of the elements of the group 13, it is also the basis of much of the chemistry of the transition elements.this ability to from complexes is in contrast to the s- and p-block elements, which only form a few complexes due the transition elements have small, highly charge and have vacant low energy orbitals to accept ions lone pairs of electrons donated by other groups or ligands.General chemistry of scandium (Group 3 element)Scandium: {Ar} 3d1 4s2Properties of the element: soft slivery-white metals and display properties which might be expected for the element following the strongly electropositive alkaline-earth metal and before the transition metal proper, scandium is less electropositive than its successors in group 2 but are electropositive than it successors in the transition series.The elements always exist in oxidation state (+ III) and occurs as M3+Scandium is classed, as a class-a acceptors (''hard acid'') and for, this require the removal of the two s and one d electron, as a result the ions have a d 0 configuration and d-d spectra are impossible, their compounds are colourless and diamagnetic. The properties of scandium are similar in some ways to aluminium, the sum of the first three-ionisation energies for Sc is a little less than the sum of for Al.The metals have moderately high standard electrode potentials and are quite reactive, tarnish in air and burn in dioxygen giving oxides M2O3.2Sc + 3O2 2Sc2 O3The metal react slowly with cold water but more rapidly in hot water liberating H2 , forming either the basic oxide or the hydroxideSc(OH)3 appears not to exist as a definite compound, but the basic oxide ScO.OH is amphoteric like Al(OH)3 and dissolves in NaOH liberating H2.Sc +3NaOH +3H2O Na3 [Sc(OH)6] + 11/2 H2,The oxides and hydroxides form salt with acid.The metal react with halogens forming trihalides MX 3 resembling halides of Ca, the fluoride are insoluble (CaF2) and other halides are diquescent and very soluble (like CaCl2)Anhydrous ScCl3 differs from AlCl3, as ScCl3 is monomeric whilst (AlCl2) 2 are dimeric, also ScCl3 show no friedel ?Crafts catalytic properties. The salt generally resemble that of Ca and fluorides, carbonates, phosphates and oxalates are insoluble.The metal react with hydrogen on heating to x> 300oC, forming highly conducting compounds (MH2), containing not M2+, but probably contain M 3+ and 2H ? with an...

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