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Classical Metaphisics Essay

1183 words - 5 pages

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Philosophy
Free will can be termed as the ability of agents to make choices with no constrains of different dynamic factors. This principle of free will has implications on religion, legal and ethical factors among others. Philosophers since time immemorial have debated extensively on the existence or the nonexistence of free will in nature.one of this philosophical figure is David Hume, he maintains that humans are free because of decisions and their actions. This is so because though determined, they are determined by our individual motives. He demonstrated that determinism is a very integral part to the existence of individual free will. This therefore means ...view middle of the document...

This views developed by Hobbes shows progress in an attempt to reconcile materialism, determinism and free will, but they are unsatisfactory to a large extent. The problem is that it does not solve issues of internal determining causes. However Hobbes was right to argue that materialism and determinism do not imply that humans have no metaphysical liberty. The is improbable a modern materialist would make the argument that irrespective of an individual’s neurochemical state, if one is not pushed or raced off the cliff, but jumps, say, while under the illusion that she can fly, the act is one of liberty.
The other philosopher who greatly contributed to ethic and human behavior actions and morality was Ruth Benedict. She can be considered a modern time philosopher, her 1934 book Patterns of Culture was a great contributor to described human behavior .there were many differences as well as similarities in her work and that of Hume and Hobbes (Robert2011) .She believed that cultures like individuals have more or less consistent patterns of how they think or act. She said that each culture form the "the great arc of human potentialities “It can be said that she mostly concentrated on the behavior and actions of the entire group of a people as opposed to individual actions.

Ontology is that branch of philosophy which studies the nature of being, becoming and existence among others. Ontological arguments pursue to demonstrate that God exists. This is done majorly by providing proves to show that it’s impossible for him to have not existed. By way of example, one can imagine the supreme and most flawless being conceivable. If this may have happened, then surely a greater being than this in your imagination must have existed and therefore God must.
Different philosophers have come up with different ontological arguments on the existence of God. One of them is the seventeenth century thinker called René Descartes defended many arguments in this category. For example, in his Fifth Meditation, he claims to provide a proof on the existence of God from the idea of a being which is supreme. Rene’ argues that there lack no ambiguity in conceiving a being which is supreme who does not exist than there is in imagining a triangle that has angles that don’t sum up to 180 degrees. Therefore, he supposes, because we are able to imagine of being that is perfect and supreme, there exist an idea of a being perfect and supreme in us .The conclusion can only be that a being...

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