The comprehension of the classical conditioning concepts helps professionals identify various factors affecting this procedure. The four basic classical conditioning concepts become various stages of environmental stimulus. These environmental stimuli processed through sensation and perception converts the classical conditioning concepts into changed behavioral patterns. Classical conditioning concepts also introduce the repetitive exposure of different stimuli within any individual’s learning environment. The purpose of this paper is to explain, analyze, and evaluate classical conditioning and the factors that affect this process, such as the four phenomena, and ...view middle of the document...
This stage creates conditioned stimulus paired with the unconditioned response receive the unconditional stimuli within a set amount of time (Izard, 2009). Professor Pavlov showed the extinction stage as overexposure to environment stimuli no longer produces the desired response from the subject (Izard, 2009). The subject stored the memory of the combination needed to obtain the unconditional response. The stored memory becomes generalization continuing to produce an unconditioned stimulus as the conditioned stimulus becomes available again (Izard, 2009). The final stage shows discrimination as opposite to generalization in description. The testing subject no longer connects the conditioned stimulus with the unconditional stimuli (Izard, 2009).
The Four Phenomena of Classical Conditioning
The four basic phenomena of classical conditioning are acquisition, extinction, generalization, and discrimination. The first phenomenon is acquisition. Acquisition is the pairing of a conditioned and unconditioned stimulus resulting in a conditioned response. Control conditions show that behavior changes because of conditioning. During unpaired control the unconditioned response and the conditioned stimulus are in the experiment; however, they are separate from each other. During truly random control the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus occur at different times during the experiment. The second phenomenon is extinction. Extinction occurs in the presentation of a conditioned stimulus without an unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous recovery occurs when the conditioned stimulus leads to an extinguished response. The third phenomenon that affects classical conditioning is generalization. Generalization is “conditioning to a trained CS generalizes to similar stimuli” (Terry, 2009, p. 61). According to Terry (2009), “Generalization is assessed by presenting the test CS is without the US, to see whether or how large a CR occurs to them” (p. 61). The fourth phenomenon is known as discrimination. The use of discrimination is for distinguishing between different conditioned stimuli and does not generalize to similar stimuli. “Thus, discrimination opposes the tendency to generalize and is a procedure that can be used to explicitly differentiate among the CSs” (Terry, 2009, p. 61).
The Role of Awareness
Awareness in classical conditioning refers to the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (Terry, 2009). The concept of awareness in classical conditioning is a controversial subject among psychologists. Some psychologists believe if conditioning involves mental processes then awareness is a component in the process of conditioning and developing conditioned responses; however, others disagree with this belief. Other professionals argue that awareness is not necessary for the development of a conditioned response (Terry, 2009). The most common technique for measuring awareness is eyeblink classical conditioning....