Classical Conditioning Essay

1344 words - 6 pages

Classical and Operant conditioning are two learning processes that we use through our daily lives. Classical conditioning is shown by when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to get a conditioned response and can indeed cause phobias. Phobias are an intense or irrational fear and the avoidance of a specific object or situation (Huffman, 2008). Operant conditioning is the formation of an association between a behavior and a consequence, which can cause addiction. Addictions are not only in the intake of substances but can range in many different categories. An addiction is something that gives you a feeling of pleasure. Researchers such as Ivan Pavlov and ...view middle of the document...

The dogs were conditioned to learn that once the bell rang it was time for them to eat. But on the other hand even when a bell would ring the dogs will begin to salivate even when it was not feeding time (Kowalski, & Westen, 2011). This can relate to the development of phobias throughout a person’s lifetime. For example, if someone has a car accident with an eighteen wheeler truck on the highway; moving forward the person may not want to drive on the highway any longer or gets scared when riding in a car next to an eighteen wheeler. Now that there has been has a bad a experience while driving unfortunately you are now conditioned to be scared while driving by the eighteen wheeler on the highway. Also there are the classical conditioned phobias that are exaggerated or an irrational fear for a object or situation (Huffman, 2008). Phobias can sometime be exaggerated such as a person’s fear of insects. Seeing an insect then screaming or taking off running thinking that a insect may be on them is an exaggerated response. Although the insect may not be near you the unconditioned response would be automatically be to scream or run. This is not something is done forcefully; it is all an involuntary action. Classical conditioning is involuntary; it is a natural response that you do not have to think about.
An addiction is a term used to describe a compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity (Huffman, 2008). Most relate the word addiction to drugs or alcohol but an addition can go far beyond just substance abuse to the body. Other addictions can be those that are addicted to watching T.V, physical exercises, internet, shopping and even gambling. All these things are done in people’s lives and it helps them to feel the ease of pain or relief of stress (Huffman, 2008). For example when in taking an ample amount of alcohol into your body, you are using both the satisfying and pain modes to operant conditioning (Anzctak, 2011). Your body may feel satisfied while you are drinking the alcohol but the pain comes after you now have to withdraw from the substance. Usually an addict will try to do the same addiction over and over again but try to find way to avoid the negative response or consequence of the addiction. Addictions are carried out in everyday lives because they may feel it is a way out or comfort although it may be a short period of time. Operant conditioning is a an voluntary act, you have to think about the substance you are taking into your body and aware of the consequences or punishment it may have on your body but you cannot stop the need to use.
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both learning processes. Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov and also researched by John B. Watson. It was accidently discovered as Pavlov was researching the subject of digestion. Pavlov finding shows that that we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring (Kowalski, & Westen,...

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