1-The Growing Population: The population of Europe began rising and may have doubled by warmer climate. Technology developed. People were living longer and healthier by eating well, beans of protein were grew widely. After that the human impacted strongly to the natural as forest and sea (page 228).
2-Technological Gains: The twelfth century, technology developed in Europe. Innovations occurred in agriculture, transportation, mining, and manufacturing. By the late twelfth century greater crop yield, horses was widely used as cattle, they hauled loads farther and faster than oxen. Plows have been improved and applied widely. The nitrogen-fixing trees were plant as peas ...view middle of the document...
The Champagne appeared as a meeting point with trade. The guilds had two main types Guild Merchant and Guild Craft. (page 232)
-Guild Merchant: The system of Feudalism during the Middle Ages allowed the lords and owners of the land to tax the people and their trades. As trade increased in the Middle Ages the taxes became excessive. A single person had no chance of making any objections to the rate and amount of tax that the lord demanded. The idea of Merchant Guilds was born. It was an association of traders, controlled forms of trade was done in town. (http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/merchant-guilds-in-the-middle-ages.htm)
-Guild Craft: A group of tradesmen or craftsmen engaged in the same occupation joined together. These trades or crafts included: Masons, Carpenters, Painters, Cloth, Makers, Tanners, Bakers, Shoemakers or cobblers, Apothecaries,Candle,makers. The Craft Guilds formed organizations for protection and mutual aid.(http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/craft-guilds-in-the-middle-ages.htm )
5-Changing Economic Attitudes: Number of poor people has increased rapidly, especially in the larger towns. Thinkers established a moral concern to alleviate the situation of the poor. Two issues were noted: "just price" and "usury".
_ Just price: as an ethical theory in economics, to set standards of balance in trade point of the theology was considered impractical, a point of trade was considered unethical
-Usury: the thinkers began to protect lenders with borrower reasons arising. Farmer must rent landlord's land for farming and didn't know how much yield was? Therefore landlords had exaggerated to profit of rented land, more exaggerated more disadvantage for famer, this activity has been seem as immoral. ( page 232-233)
II. Carolingian THE HEIRS OF THE EMPIRE: GERMANY, ITALY, AND FRANCE
The similarities and differences exist when Carolingian area by 1300 (The situation of Italian, German, French star collapse of the Carolingian Empire).By 1300, France had emerged as a large, stable kingdom. Italy had turned into several reasonably coherent regional entities. The most surprising political developed time the old Carolingian lands.
1. Germany and Empire, 911-1272:
_The situation Reich: Two issued are paramount: the role of dynastic and territorial instability in German history and German rulers’ complex, contentious relations with the leaders of the church. The Treaty of Verdun created something essentially new in 843: an East Frankish kingdom. Frankish rulers had long claimed authority over some of the lands that eventually became Germany. Being attacked the Roman Empire. The Empire's reign (Saxons, Salians, Staufer) and King are chosen from one of the duke. (After the end East Frankish Carolingian died in 911). Under varying circumstances, the dukes chose kings from different families several times:Saxons (or Ottonians) 919: When the Saxons came to power, they attempted to control one or more of these duchies, Salians 1024, Staufer 1138....