Civil Rights Movement: Key Players Essay

1655 words - 7 pages

The Civil Rights movement was the national effort in the 50s and 60s to eliminate segregation to gain equal rights. Many individuals and organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws. My project is on the key players of the Civil Rights Movement.Martin Luther KingMartin Luther king was an American clergyman and civil-rights leader. He was born in Atlanta, GA January 16, 1929. .He was a Morehouse College In 1951 he received a degree from Crozer Theological Seminary and enrolled in Boston University Ph.D program. In 1954, King became minister of the Dexter Ave. Baptist Church ...view middle of the document...

While controversy raged over the civil liberties issue, the Panthers themselves were torn apart with internal disputes. A major split took place, with Newton and Seale, who in 1972 decided to abandon their violent methods, on the one side and Eldridge Cleaver, the former chief publicist for the party, who continued to preach violent revolution. Cleaver headed the so-called international headquarters of the party until 1973 in Algeria. In 1974 both Seale and Newton left the party and the latter fled to Cuba to avoid drug charges. During the late 1970s the party slowly but surely lost most of its power and important force within the black community came to an end.Malcolm XMalcolm X was a militant black leader in the United States. Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, NB, X was introduced to the Black Muslims while serving a prison term and became a Muslim minister upon his release in 1952. He quickly became very influential in the movement with an audience almost equivalent to that of its leader, Elijah Muhammad. In 1963, Malcolm was suspended by Elijah after a speech in which Malcolm suggested that President Kennedy's assassination was a matter of the "chickens coming home to roost." He then formed a rival organization of his own, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. In 1964, after a crusade to Mecca, he converted to orthodox Islam and his new belief that there could be brotherhood between black and white. In his Organization of Afro-American Unity, his tone was still that of militant black nationalism but no longer of separation. In Feb., 1965, he was shot and killed in a public auditorium in New York City. His assassins were indistinctly identified as Black Muslims, but it is still not quite confirmed.Rosa ParksRosa Parks, also known as the "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement," was born in 1913 in Tuskegee, AL as Rosa Louise McCauley. She was a seamstress and long-time member of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. Her Dec. 1, 1955, arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a public bus to a white man sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. This successful protest marked the surfacing of Martin Luther King, Jr., to national status as a civil-rights leader and provided the model for future nonviolent movement actions. Fired from her job and unable to find work, Parks moved in 1957 to Detroit, where she remained active in the civil-rights movement and worked as an aide to Congressman John Conyers. She was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, Congress's highest honor, in 1999. She died in 2005.Little Rock NineThe Little Rock Nine were the first blacks to attend all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957. These notable young students challenged the system and won. Although Brown v. Board of Education outlawed segregation in schools, many racist school systems defied the law by intimidating and threatening black students, but the Little Rock Nine were determined to attend the school and receive the same education offered to white students, no matter...

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