STI’s by definition are infections of the reproductive tract that is caused by microorganisms. These microorganisms are transmitted through vaginal, anal, or oral sexual intercourse. STI’s pose a serious threat to the health of women and also to the health of a fetus and newborn. Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STI, followed by Gonorrhea. These two sexually transmitted infections are characterized by cervicitis. Cervicitis is inflammation or infection of the cervix. It can be either symptomless or cause bleeding on contact and purulent discharge of the vagina [ (Ricci, 2013) ].
Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis. This ...view middle of the document...
Also assess the patient for clinical manifestations of Chlamydia. Signs and symptoms of Chlamydia are sometimes difficult to detect because three quarters of infected women are asymptomatic. When symptoms are evident, they usually do not occur for several weeks after having sexual intercourse with an infected partner. The symptoms consist of abnormal vaginal discharge, burning sensation when urinating, lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, painful intercourse, and bleeding between menstrual periods. If the infection is in the rectum, it can cause pain, discharge and bleeding as well [ (Toro, 2008) ].
Women should be tested for Chlamydia if their sexually partner may be infected or showing symptoms, if you have frequent unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners, if you have had another STI in the past, if you have a cervical infection, and if you are pregnant. Since Chlamydia is asymptomatic, it is important for sexually active women 25 years and younger to be tested at least once a year [ (Likis, 2013) ]. Diagnosing Chlamydia can be done multiple ways. The preferred method is vaginal swabbing. This can be done during a pelvic exam. STI screening during a pelvic exam is usually done when requested from the patient. Another method is by collecting a urine sample [ (Chlamydia-CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed), 2014) ].
Therapeutic management of chlamydia involves taking oral antibiotics. 100mg, twice a day of doxycycline is usually prescribed to be taken for a total of seven days or zithromax may be prescribed in a single dose of 1 gram taken orally. It is important to educate the patient about the management of the infection. The patient must take the whole antibiotic without skipping a dose. It is important for the patient to abstain from sexual activity for seven days after a single dose antibiotic or until the completion of a 7-day course antibiotic. It is also important for the patient’s sexual partner or partners to be tested and treated as well. This will prevent the spreading of the infection [ (Chlamydia-CDC Fact Sheet (Detailed), 2014) ]. The patient must get a follow-up test 3-4 months after the treatment to make sure that she has not become re-infected with chlamydia. If the patient is pregnant, they should be retested 3 weeks and 3 months after completion or recommended therapy [ (Likis, 2013) ].
Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported STI in the United States. It is a serious and potentially severe bacterial infection. Gonorrhea is derived from a gram-negative aerobic bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae [ (Ricci, 2013) ]. Gonorrhea is transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. It increases the risk for PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and HIV acquisition and transmission. It can also be spread perinatally from mother to baby during childbirth [ (Gonorrhea-The facts, 2012) ]. Gonorrhea can cause many problems in pregnant...