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China And India Political And Economical Structures

4996 words - 20 pages

The People’s Republic of China and the Republic of India:
Comparing and Contrasting Political and Economic Structures

I. Introduction:

In a political perspective “The People’s Republic of China” and the “Republic of India” are from diverse dimensions in which China is mostly dominated by the communist ideology with an open economy and India is under democratic principles with a competitive market. Yet, both countries tend to be facing some of the same problems under its economic structures because of their political institutions and socialization factors. Throughout the research, both countries will be compared and contrast on their history, political culture, systems, ...view middle of the document...

S. Department, 2008, China).

On October 1, 1949 in Beijing, Mao Zedong founded the People’s Republic of China (P.R.C) which was welcome by generations of war, social conflict and an economy with high inflation and links of disrupted transportation. Zedong led an order of political and economic change modeled by the example of the Soviets (U.S. Department, 2008, China). The relations between the Soviet Union ended in disputes in August of 1960. Furthermore, differences in the leadership of the Communist Party began to rise and Chairman Mao began his new movement “Grand Proletarian Cultural Revolution” in which set the course for political and social anarchy lasting for a decade (U.S. Department, 2008, China).

After Mao Zedong’s death, China suffered from problems with succession and the new leadership quickly moved in the direction to encourage economic development and to renounce political movements. The government was keen to promote economic reform policies at expanding incentives and rural income, developing enterprise autonomy, reducing central planning, and attracting foreign direct investment (U.S. Department, 2008, China). The newly established leadership implemented legal reforms passing codes of law that were contradictory to the communist ideology that Mao had thought for China.

In addition to economic and legal reforms, the Communist Party encouraged artists, writers, and journalists to express their ideas to be critical with the exception that speaking about the party with prohibited (Almond, 2008, p. 429). However, due to the consequences of these changes, the government faced social problems such as inflation, urban migration and prostitution leading to the disagreement among party elders to which step should China take for its future (U.S. Department, 2008, China).


India was made up of myriad kingdoms with fluctuating boundaries during the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., northern India was unified under the Gupta Dynasty, this period was known as India’s Golden Age, in which Hindu culture and political administration reached new heights. Due to the spread of Islam, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established sultanates. Most of Indian society in its thousands of villages remained untouched by the political struggles going on around them, Indian courtly culture evolved into diverse blend of Hindu and Muslim traditions (U.S. Department, 2007, India).

Since the development of the state, India’s political authority and control were localized and was part of loosely organized empires, combining different factors such as kinship, agrarian systems and religious networks. When the British established their rule, it succeeded in bringing various regional and local units under a central government, which drew heavily on indirect rule through quasi-autonomous intermediaries, such as native princes, tribal leaders, and landlords (Almond, 2008, p 613). Beginning in 1920, Indian leader Mohandas K. Gandhi...

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