Infancy and Early Childhood Development
Developmental Stages Essay
Adolescence is probably the most difficult period in life of every individual since it is a transitional stage between childhood and adulthood. In this period adolescent undergo significant changes in physiological, psychological and social aspects. Naturally, these changes produce a significant impact on their lifestyle, behaviour, psychology, etc.
Traditionally, adolescence is considered to start at preteens, i.e. from 9-10 years of age till 19-20 years of age. Basically, adolescence may be divided into three main stages middle childhood (8-11), early adolescence (11-14), and middle adolescence (15-18) while the ...view middle of the document...
Furthermore, children’s self-concept is basically shaped by relationships with parents, teachers and peers. Often they have little concern about their physical appearance though certain pressure to conform ‘masculine’ stereotype among boys and girls’ body image declines, especially with puberty. At this stage lower self-control and emotional stability may be observed.
Speaking about emotional and psychological development at this stage, it is necessary to point out that children need to develop a sense of mastery and accomplishment that is often accompanied by certain disorganisation and forgetfulness. It is also noteworthy that parents still remains important for children at this stage and the children’s involvement in the taking decisions concerning themselves remains rather low though it starts to increase dramatically as children grew older. Basically, the latter occurs with the beginning of puberty.
As for their peers, it should be pointed out that friendship is with same-gender peers. Also, at this stage, the formation of exclusive ‘clubs’ and shifting peer alliances may be observed. Finally, it is necessary to underline that mass media and pop culture produce a significant impact on children’s development, peer activities and relations at this stage.
The second stage of adolescence is early adulthood that starts at the age of 11 and lasts till 14. At this stage, an extremely rapid physical changes occur, since it is the puberty period that affects both genders. Often appetite increases, evident sexual changes occur, that results in voice changes and body ordor. In the state of a rapid physical growth, adolescents often have an increased need for sleep.
Furthermore, at this stage, certain cognitive changes occur. To put it more precisely, some adolescents are still focused on logic, while others are already able to combine logical and abstract thinking. However, it should be pointed out that some adolescents can’t think ahead about consequences of their actions that makes their behaviour unpredictable and unexpected. Anyway, they start to think more abstractly, think about their possibilities, the process of thinking itself. Moreover, they start to think in multiple dimensions. It should be said that often they practice new thinking skills through humor and by arguing with parents and others.
At the sage of early adolescence, moral development is still characterized by strong egocentrism. At the same time, they acquire ability to take perspectives of others into account with own perspective. In addition to attempts to gain social approval, adolescents moral is getting to be based on respect for the social order and agreements between people. On the other hand, they start to question social conventions and re-examine their moral principles that often results in conflicts with their parents.
Also, it should be said that at this stage the separation of adolescents from their families begins and peers begin to play...