Human Trafficking/Child Soldiers
Dr. Rufus E. Robinson
Contemporary International Problems-POL 300002043
March 18, 2011
Human Trafficking/Child Soldiers
Human trafficking has attracted the attention of the international community and individual states on more than one occasion. Trafficking consists of the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. ...view middle of the document...
Child labor is typically used in situations of mass adult unemployment, as
children are cheap and obedient. Children usually become trafficking victims through the use of force, threats, and fraud.
While human trafficking for labor or sexual exploitation are the most common forms, they are not the only forms of trafficking. Exploitation of people as beggars is another common trafficking form. Typical victims for this type of trafficking involve those with limited or no access to formal employment, such as the disabled, children, and the elderly. The disabled are forced to work as beggars. They usually have severe physical injuries and are confined to wheelchairs. Children may be involved in begging as well as narcotics distribution, theft, and sale of stolen goods. Traffickers take advantage of the fact that police in Russia do not actively prosecute children under 14 years old.
Trafficking victims are from poor populations which include men, women, and children. Traffickers exploit people’s poverty, helplessness, willingness to earn easy money, and many other factors. Root causes include factors such as poverty, organized crime, and corruption. Those who are poorly educated are at a higher risk of poverty since their access to higher paying jobs is limited. Poverty is the main factor forcing many adolescents and children to leave school early to earn money for the survival of themselves and their families. Poverty limits many groups access to effective employment, education, social services, and other opportunities.
Human trafficking is usually carried out by organized crime groups. Organized crime groups control the sex trade. Members of organized crime groups perform a number of duties making up a chain of criminal activities: recruitment, provision of documents, transportation, delivery to an employer, and exploitation. These groups either recruit women and children
directly or extort money from sex workers who operate independently and organized crime groups often bribe law enforcement in order to operate freely.
Corruption is a complex social, political, and economic phenomenon that affects all countries (UNODC, 2011). Corruption exists in all countries big, small, rich and poor. Corruption in Russia is encouraged by weak laws. Corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development, and contributes to governmental instability. For example, human trafficking victims who have gone to the police have been returned to their former bosses. Employers have also handled illegal migrants over to the police once work such as a construction projects have been completed rather than pay migrants their earned wages.
Women and children are among the most high-risk groups for human trafficking. The most vulnerable groups among women include poorly educated young women who have no stable income source, mothers with a number of children, single mothers, victims of domestic violence, and those who are...