Review of Literature:
1) Duration of TV Viewing:
According to the A.C. Nielsen Co. the average American watches more than 4 hours of TV each day (28 hours / week) i.e. 2 months of nonstop TV watching per year.
Number of minutes per week that parents spend in meaningful conversation with their children : 3.5 minutes / week.
Number of minutes per week that the average child watches Television 1680 minutes (4 hours/day).
70% of day care centers use television during a typical day.
Dietz WH, Strausburger VC & et al in 1991 study entitled “Children Adolescents and Television” revealed that – American children spend more time in front of TV than at any other activity, with the ...view middle of the document...
This range of Television viewing was close to the one found by UNICEF in India in 1987.9
According to a study conducted by R.K Gupta & Saini et al at Jaipur 1992, 250 children of 3-10 years age groups were studied for a period of nine months (January 1992 to September 1992). Average duration of television exposure to an individual child was 18.5 hours per week in the study. The average TV viewing time by 3-5 years olds as 21 hours 20 minutes / week, 5-7 years olds was 18 hours / week and 7-10 years olds was 17 hours 45 minutes / week. Significant changes were observed in a child’s eating habits, weight, physical activity, sleep pattern, interest in study and general physical health. Increase in weight was observed in 19.6% children suggesting that the television viewing may predispose to childhood obesity. In 30.4% cases decrease in physical activity was found, 18.4% children showed decreased interest in study, while 10% children showed decrease in school performance, and sleep pattern was disturbed in 24% children. Medical problems were found in 11.6% children. Significantly two children had precipitation of fits on television viewing. 1
2) Age and TV Viewing:
Frederick J. Zimmerman & et al in the study “Television and DVD/Video Viewing in Children Younger Than 2 Years” Minnesota and Washington, which was telephone survey of 1009 parents of children aged 2 to 24 months found that “presently children get exposed to television at a very early age often before the age of one year.” By the time they reach their second birthday they usually know how to operate TV and they become regular viewers. From that time onwards till they reach the age of 6 years the time spent for TV viewing goes on steadily increasing throughout the preschool period. Preadolescent period witnesses the peak followed by a drop during adolescence and once again there is a surge in time spent for TV during the adulthood consistently higher than that found in children.
Research in this regard in Sweden by Saleem KS in 2007 has revealed that the steady increase in time spent in front of Television continues until school replaces the television partially and then onwards the time for TV declines. There is steady increase in the amount of time spent for TV until the age of ten years.10
Gender based difference related to television viewing practice do not find much mentioned in published literature.
4) Day of the Week :
On an average the time spent during non-school days is at an increment of over one hour or about 1/3rd of total TV viewing time during school days.##
As might be expected, during the school year, viewing is most frequent on Wednesdays, Saturdays and Sundays, in France, as pointed out by Judith Lazar in 1985. And according to the Mediametrie Diapason-INA study, there is an average increment of over one hour (or about one third) of viewing time on non-school days as opposed to school days. However, this finding may be refined by relating...