12 February 2014
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Erik Erikson proposed the theory of Psychosocial Development. He believed that the development occurs throughout the total lifetime. His theory provided new insights into the formation of a healthy personality of a child. Children’s personality develops in response to their social environment. The same is true of their skills for being able to interact with others. Erikson has stages that show these issues. At each stage, a social conflict occurs. These conflicts require solutions that are satisfying both personally and socially. He believed that each stage must be solved before children can go into the next stage. Maturity helps the resolution of the conflict. Teachers and parents of the child play a powerful role in recognizing each stage. By providing social support to the child, teachers and parents can help children overcome the crisis. The first four stages of ...view middle of the document...
Mistrust will occur if an infant experiences and unpredictable world and is handled harshly. The next stage is called the Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. This stage occurs between 18 months and 3 years of age. During this stage, toddlers use their new mental skills. They want to be independent and do things for themselves. They are in the process of discovering their own bodies and practicing their developing physical movement and language skills. The point of this stage is for the child to gain self-control without losing their self-esteem that they are trying to gain. At this age, toddlers start to become self-sufficient. They need to learn to start deciding things for themselves. To do this, they need a loving and supporting environment. Positive opportunities for example, self-feeing, and dressing will result in the start of independence. If the child is receiving overprotection, activities result in self-doubt, and poor achievement. The next stage, which is called the Initiative vs. Guilt, is between three 3 and 5 years old. Erikson explains that this stage emerges as a result of the many skills children have already developed. Now children have the capacity and are ready to learn constructive ways of dealing with people and things. They are learning how to take the initiative without being harmful to others and they are also starting to learn on how the world works. Children begin to realize what they do can affect the world also. Children are constantly attempting new tasks. They are able to move ahead energetically. This starts to give them a sense of accomplishment. Children at this stage start to develop a sense of purpose.
The last stage is the Industry vs. Inferiority. The major crisis of this stage occurs between 6 and 12 years old. At this time, kids enjoy planning different projects. This helps them to learn the rules of society and the expectations. During this stage, children gain approval by intellectual skills such as reading and math. The way teachers and parents respond to the children affect their future development. Realistic goals and expectations enrich children’s sense of self. Children can become very frustrated by criticism or discouragement, or if the parents demand too much control. Feelings of incompetence and insecurity will also come into place.