Chemistry in Life:
The Biochemistry of Running
Dr. Mark Lee
In common metabolic biochemistry human burns fuel (food) and generate energy. This energy is responsible off doing all types of processes of her body. Human body work in a very complex way when there is a demand on working muscles. During running so many changes are noticeable in human body. Those changes are faster heartbeat, sweating, hurting of muscles and very fast and deep breathing. These things consider normal doing marathon run. In order for runners to run marathon they have to train their body with hours of training. These trainings prepare their different body areas ...view middle of the document...
There is a couple of ways energy is available. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is main source that we utilize (Blann, 2010). There is very small amount of ATP available in our bloodstream which can be used for very short amount of time. It can be only use in matter of seconds, rest of the ATP we can synthesize in different ways. First source of Energy that marathon runner’s use is the ATP available immediately in the human body (Blann, 2010).
As ATP can only supply enough energy for a couple of seconds, so for sustained muscle contractions ATP have to be regenerated, so from their ATP is provided by reaction of Creatine phosphate and ADP (Brown, 2012).Creatine can be synthesized in our body or we can take it to the dietary sources. Creatine is present in muscles in its phosphorylated form which is called Creatine phosphate or Phosphocreatine. On other hand ATP molecule which have adenosine bond to three phosphate group (Brown, 2012). ATP release energy when it break it's very high-energy phosphate bond and free phosphate group which can form a molecule called adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This reaction of phosphocreatine and ADP, regenerate ATP. Both reactions are shown below (Blann, 2010).
According to Le Châtelier’s Principle mention by Del Coso, J., Fernández, “as the concentration of ATP is depleted in the first few seconds of intense exercise, the phosphocreatine-creatine equilibrium shifts to favor the formation of ATP. ATP can then be used again to power muscle contraction for up to 10 seconds of extremely intense activity, such as a 100-meter sprint” (Del Coso, 2013)
After the depletion of creatine phosphate glucose become main energy source for runner’s body. ATP can be synthesized by glucose breakdown to pyruvate. This process called glycolysis (reaction of glucose to pyruvate is shown below).Pyruvate can further process in and can form ATP but this process required additional oxygen. Since during running muscles are at their maximum action, oxygen cannot enter in muscle cells faster, which is required in oxidative phosphorylation and citric acid cycle to produce more ATP (Brown, 2012).In those anaerobic circumstances out of necessity pyruvate converted to lactate, which then transported to live via bloodstream and then recycled to pyruvate. Glucose for pyruvate is generated by glycogenolysis, which is a process breaking down glycogen to glucose. Glycogen is stored sugar in our muscles. Due to the buildup lactate muscles get tired and the anaerobic glycolysis last only for couple of minutes.
From there on another pathway become available. As mentioned above during running, our heart beat get faster and we breathe hard this result more oxygen to our muscles by bloodstream. After our muscle cells get enough oxygen the aerobic pathway get activated. In the presence of oxygen ATP can be a generated again by citric acid cycle and oxidative Phosphorylation. During the long race, runners should...