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Chemistry Essay

2636 words - 11 pages

8.5 EnergyLiving organisms make compounds which are important sources of energyOutline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to chemical energy and recall the raw materials for this processPhotosynthesis is the process where light energy from the sun is trapped by the chlorophyll in plant leaves and is used with the raw materials to convert into chemical energyIt is an endothermic reactionCarbon dioxide + Water + Energy Glucose + Oxygen6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + Energy C6H12O6 (aq) + 6O2 (g)Outline the role of production of high energy carbohydrates from carbon dioxide as the important step in the stabilisation of the sun's energy in a form that can be used by animals as well as ...view middle of the document...

2 Describe the structure of the diamond and graphite allotropes and account for their physical properties in terms of bondingAllotropes are different structural forms of an element based on the different spatial arrangements of the bonds between the atoms
Allotrope

Type of bonding

Shape

Hardness

Conductivity

Structure

Diamond

Covalent network

Tetrahedral

Very hard

Non-conductor

Graphite

Covalent network

Planar

Soft

Conductor

2.3 Identify that carbon can form single, double or triple covalent bonds with other carbon atomsCarbon can form single, double and triple bonds with other carbon atomsSingle bond - One pair of electrons are shared e.g. ethaneDouble bond - Two pairs of electrons are shared e.g. etheneTriple bond - Three pairs of electrons are shared e.g. ethyne2.4 Explain the relationship between carbon's combining power and ability to form a variety of bonds and the existence of a large number of carbon moleculesCarbon has a valence shell of 4It generally forms 4 bonds, indicating that all valence electrons are involved in bondingIt can form a variety of compounds from the chains of virtually unlimited length of C-C bonds2.6 Process and present information from secondary sources on the uses of diamond and graphite and relate their uses to their physical propertiesDiamond
Use

Explanation

Jewellery

Lustrous
Hard
Scratch resistant

Industrial equipment

Hard
High melting point
Resists corrosion

Graphite
Use

Explanation

Industrial lubricant

High melting point
Slippery
The planar layers slide over one another

Electrodes

Electrical conductivity
High melting point

A variety of carbon compounds are extracted from organic sources3.1 Describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and identify the uses of each fraction obtainedFractional distillation is carried out in large steel towers to separate the components of crude oilThe components are separated according to their boiling pointsRoughly in order of increasing molecular weightsCrude oil is vaporised and fed into the bottom of the fractioning columnThe least volatile components condense near the bottom while the most volatile components condense towards the topThe liquids are collected from the columns at various heights and are known as fractions
Fraction

B.P (oC)

Uses

Gases

< 30

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Petroleum Ether

30 - 80

Industrial solvents

Gasoline

70 - 200

Motor fuel

Kerosene

175 - 250

Jet fuel, domestic heating

Gas Oil

250 - 350

Diesel fuel, domestic & industrial heating

Lubricating Oil

> 350

Motor oils

Grease

> 350

Lubrication

Bitumen

Residue

Road making, roofing

3.2 Identify and use the IUPAC nomenclature for describing straight-chained alkanes and alkenes from C1 to C8Hydrocarbons are chains of carbon bonded to other carbon and hydrogenThe prefix indicates the number of carbon in the largest chainThe suffix indicates the...

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