*Evolution: change in allele frequencies in a population over time
* The population does not occur if:
A. The breeding population is large. The effect of a change in allele frequencies is reduced.
B. Mating is random. Organisms show no mating preference for a particular genotype.
C. There is no net mutation of the alleles.
D. There is no migration or emigration of organisms.
E. There is no natural selection. Every organism has an equal chance for passing on their genotypes.
Dom allele (A)= p
Rec allele (a)=q
If no evolution there are expected:
+ freq of dom (AA)= p x p =P2
+freq of rec (aa)= q x q= q2
+freq of heterozygote (Aa or aA) = 2pq
p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1
Ex1: If 98 out of 200 in a population express a recessive phenotype, what % of the population will be homozygous ...view middle of the document...
+Isopropanol: precipitate DNA. Pellet: DNA, salt, RNA. Sup: proteins
+Ethanol: precipitate DNA&RNA
Wash away salt
+RNAse: degrade DNA
Lab10: Outline: Digest pAMP plasmid with restriction enzymes
use gel electrophoresis to separate visualize fragments
construct a plasmid map
*Plasmid: + small, circular double stranded DNA
+ naturally found in bacteria
+features of pAMP:
. origins of Replication
(ORI) required for bacteria to make copies of plasmid
Resistance gene enzyme that breaks down Ampicillin
*multiple cloning site: location to insert foreign DNA
+ cut DNA( molecular scissors)
+naturally found in bacteria
EcoRI: 5’- GAATTC-3’ “B”-Borate (“ –“ charge which helps conduct current)
Bam HT: 5’-GGATCC-3’ “E”- EDTA (chelates divalent [ -- bind to ] ) cations: Mg2+ , Ca2+ , Mn2+
Palindromic Sequence(Race car) Loading Sample: (pAMP +R.E)
EX: 5’-CGGCCG-3’ *2X buffer (specific pH, salt, cofactor)
3’-GCCGGC-5’ * Loading Dye: Glycerol(density)
Gel Electrophoresis: Bromophenol Blue(fast)
+ seperates DNA by size Turquoise Xylene Cyano Dye ( slow)
+gel materials: *Ethidium Bromide: Binds to DNA
0.8% Agarose( seaweed)