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Chemical Conversion Processes Essay

3096 words - 13 pages

CHEMICAL CONVERSIONS

Acylation Acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The compound providing the acyl group is called the acylating agent. These are used to form aryl ketones. Because they form a strong electrophile when treated with some metal catalysts, acyl halides are commonly used as acylating agents. For example, Friedel-Crafts acylation uses acetyl chloride (ethanoyl chloride), CH3COCl, as the agent and aluminum chloride (AlCl 3) as a catalyst to add an ethanoyl(acetyl) group to benzene:

The mechanism of this reaction is electrophilic substitution. Hydrolysis While solvolysis often refers to an organic chemistry ...view middle of the document...

In oil refining contexts, alkylation refers to a particular alkylation of isobutane with olefins. It is a Alcohols and phenols can be alkylated to give alkyl ethers: R-OH + R'-X → R-O-R' + H-X The produced acid HX is removed with a base, or, alternatively, the alcohol is deprotonated first to give an alkoxide or phenoxide.

Amination Amination is the process by which an amine group is introduced into an organic molecule. This can occur in a number of ways including reaction with ammonia or another amine such as an alkylation, reductive amination and the Mannich reaction. For example, -COOH --> -CONH2. Alkylation is the addition of an R group where acylation is the addition of an acyl group (-COCH3). Acylation has two steps; Acylation (the addition of an acylium ion) and then reduction. Reduction can often happen more that once.

Ammonolysis Solvolysis is a special type of nucleophilic substitution or elimination where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule. For certain nucleophiles, there are specific terms for the type of solvolysis reaction. For water, the term is hydrolysis; for alcohols, it is alcoholysis; for ammonia, it is ammonolysis

Calcination Calcination (also referred to as calcining) is a thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of a volatile fraction. The calcination process normally takes place at temperatures below the melting point of the product materials. Calcination is to be distinguished from roasting, in which more complex gas-solid reactions take place between the furnace atmosphere and the solids; however, calcination takes place in the absence of air.

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Calcination reactions Calcination reactions usually take place at or above the thermal decomposition temperature (for decomposition and volatilization reactions) or the transition temperature (for phase transitions). This temperature is usually defined as the temperature at which the standard Gibb's free energy of reaction for a particular calcination reaction is equal to zero. For example, in limestone calcination, a decomposition process, the chemical reaction is CaCO 3 = CaO + CO2(g). The standard Gibb's free energy of reaction is approximated as ΔG°r = 177,100 - 158 T (J/mol). The standard free energy of reaction is zero in this case when the temperature, T, is equal to 848°C.

Carboxylation Carboxylation in chemistry is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is introduced in a substrate. The opposite reaction is decarboxylation.

Causticization A process for converting an alkaline carbonate into lime.

Causticity, the property of a substance that causes corrosion
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Sodium hydroxide, sometimes called caustic soda Potassium hydroxide, sometimes called caustic potash Calcium oxide, sometimes called caustic lime

Condensation Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase....

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