HUMAN VALUES AS 'GUIDING VALUES' (operative values) DISTINCT FROM VALUE JUDGEMENTS (conceived values)
theme: There are no values outside of human existence. Human values are values for living or 'operative values. Consequently the analysis of the human value life is a problem for biology i.e. 'moral science'.
"Values are rooted in the very conditions of human existence; hence our knowledge of these conditions, that is, of the 'human situation', leads us to establishing values which have objective validity; this validity exists only with regard to the existence of man; outside of him there are no values." (Erich Fromm Values, Psychology, and Human Existence in Maslow A.H. (ed) New ...view middle of the document...
'Good' 'bad' 'virtue' and 'vice' are value judgements. Human values which are conceived in terms of human attributes are value judgements or 'conceived values'.
A value is a true value only when it is not an object of judgement and is not attributed with objective validity. If the true value 'goodness' is made into a value judgement 'goodness is good' then the value of goodness is lost. True values are free from the perspective of egoistic judgement. They are perceived from the higher level of ego-transcendant consciousness i.e. 'ego-transcendance'. Human values are 'humanly valuable' or 'divine' in the depths of the unconscious where they are free from judgement. In this sense the 'human values' and the 'divine values' are the same. Lao-tze of Mahatyana Buddhism expressed it thus: "The good is just so and values are just-so-ness or 'tao'. And tao is nameless".
Human values which are conceived in terms of human attributes are value judgements or 'conceived values'.
"A value is valueless when it is not subjectively free from an egoistic impulse... In terms of Taoism, or Mahayana Buddhism, the value is a value when it is a no-value. Psychologically when all the values are shut up in the depths of the the unconscious or in the limbo of oblivion, we have the values in their genuine form. Lao-tze says that what can be designated as this or that is not Tao. Tao is nameless. Every moment you say , "it is good" the good loses its goodness. The really good is just so, and no more no less. The good is just-so-ness. So with the rest of human values...The human and the divine are one, for what is humanly valuable is so only because it is divine." (Daisetz Teitoro Suzuki 'Human Values in Zen' Maslow A.H. (ed) New Knowledge in Human Values. New York: Harper Brothers 1959 p 95)
Knowledge of value ('moral science') depends on knowledge of human nature The human species or 'homo sapiens' is a social species which depends for adaptation and survival on social cooperation as ... connectedness between individuals... human solidarity possible with social values i.e. 'spiritual values' or 'spiritual needs'. Spiritual needs are the i.e. 'growth needs of being' or 'Being-needs'.... such as unconditional spiritual love or 'agape'. As spiritual needs for growth, the spiritual values are of survival value to the human organism and have a biological basis. As biological needs the spiritual values constitute the 'spiritual equipment' which evolved with the evolution of the human species. Human evolution is a function of the natural selection for human social values i.e. 'social intelligence'. Social intelligence is a function of the fulfillment of human needs for psychological or 'spiritual growth'. Spiritual growth is a function of 'moral development' or 'morality'. Morality is defined in terms of moral consciousness or 'conscience'. The human conscience or 'soul' represents the source of the morals or 'virtues' of the value life i.e. 'happiness'. Personal...