Review Questions Chapter 1
1.3 Describe the approach taken to the handling of data in the early file-based systems.
In the early file based system their all data was in written form, due to the lake of education, due to the in-familiarity with new techniques, lake of computer knowledge so all the data required would be stored in a file or files owned by the programs.
Discuss the disadvantages of this approach.
Different programs could be written in different languages, and would not be able to access another program's files. This would be true even for those programs written in the same language, because a program needs to know the file structure before it can access it.
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This may include instructions on how to log on to the DBMS, make backup copies of the database, and how to handle hardware or software failures.
(5) People: This includes the database designers, database administrators (DBAs), application programmers, and the end-users.
1.6 Discuss the roles of the following personnel in the database environment:
a. data administrator: Data administrators are persons who are responsible for the overall management of data resources in an organization.
b. database administrator: Database administrators are responsible for physical database design and for managing technical issues in the database environment.
c. logical database designer: ensuring, via normalization procedures and the definition of integrity rules, that the stored database will be non-redundant and properly connected
d. physical database designer: specifying how database records are stored, accessed and related to ensure adequate performance.
e. application developer: Persons such as systems analysts and programmers who design new application programs. System developers often use CASE tools for system requirements analysis and program design.
f. end-user: Persons throughout the organization who add, delete, and modify data in the database and who request or receive information from it. All user interactions with the database must be routed through the DBMS.
1.7 Discuss the three generations of DBMSs.
SQL Server: Microsoft SQL Server is an application used to create computer databases for the Microsoft Windows family of server operating systems. Microsoft SQL Server provides an environment used to generate databases that can be accessed from workstations, the Internet, or other media such as a personal digital assistant (PDA).
Oracle: is made up of a set of processes running in your operating system. These processes manage how data is stored and how it is accessed. It is a database system through which we can manipulate the date through different process.
Microsoft-Access: MS Access is a relational database management system (RDBMS).
RDBMS is a special type of database management system that stores data in form of related tables. It is differ from flat file databases because it uses several tables for a single database.
1.8 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of DBMSs.
Data independence: Application programs should be as independent as possible from
details of data representation and storage. The DBMS can provide an abstract view of the
data to insulate application code from such details.
Efficient data access: A DBMS utilizes a variety of sophisticated techniques to store and
retrieve data efficiently. This feature is especially important if the data is stored on
external storage devices.
Data integrity and security: If data is always accessed through the DBMS, the DBMS
can enforce integrity constraints on the data. For example, before inserting salary
information for an...