Organizational structure refers to the way that an organization arranges people and jobs so that its work can be performed and its goals can be met.
A process involving decisions about six key elements:
The process of focusing one's occupational concentration on a specific area of expertise. An increase in job specialization among employees can make them less flexible since it tends to reduce their ability to perform other types of work within the business that fall outside their particular specialty.
The process of forming employees into groups to accomplish specific ...view middle of the document...
* Functional Departmentalization. An organization can be organized into departments based upon the respective functions each performs for the organization. For example, a manufacturing company may create a production department, sales and marketing department, an accounting department, and a human resources department. Functional departmentalization may be advantageous as it can increase efficiency and expertise because all related activities are performed in one place by one group of people that specialize in that activity
* Product Departmentalization. An organization can also divide itself by its product lines. It creates a department for each product and that department controls all activities related to the product including development, production, marketing, sales, and distribution. This structure provides the organization the advantage of developing personnel with a high level of expertise and specialization for each of its products.
* Geographic Departmentalization. Organizing departments along geographic lines is often a good idea for large multinational firms with offices around the world. All activities related to the organization's activities in each region are handled by a department in that region. One advantage of this method is that it ensures the development of expertise specific to the political, social, and cultural needs of the region. Moreover, sending managers to work in each region provides excellent training for upper level management positions where a broad perspective is required for success.