Chapter 10 Molecular Biology Of The Gene Outline

3950 words - 16 pages

Chapter 10 – Molecular Biology of the Gene

The structure of the Genetic Material

Intro

1 Viruses – basically packaged nucleic acid particles

1 Living or Non-living

1 genetic material is nucleic acid,

1 not cellular

2 does not reproduce on its own.

2 Nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat (capsid) and

3 capsid and nucleic acid is sometimes surrounded by a membranous envelope (phospholipids + membrane proteins)

4 They are tiny (largest are 200nm – 1/100th of a human cell) and

1 do not carry the tools they need to reproduce

2 they need the cell’s tools!

2 Brief life cycle of Herpevirus (similar to other viruses)

1 Viruses ...view middle of the document...

So which is it? Scientists thought protein.

How was DNA determined to be the genetic (hereditary) material of life?

1 Began in 1928 – English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith

1 He heat-killed a pneumonia-causing bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia (smooth strain)

2 Took some substance from the dead bacteria and gave it to a harmless form of the bacteria (rough strain)

3 The rough strain and its descendents were transformed into the infectious smooth strain!

4 What was this “transforming factor”? Griffith and everyone else believed it to be protein!

5

|Inject: |Outcome: |
|Rough strain |Mouse lives |
|Smooth strain |Mouse dies |
|Heat-killed smooth strain|Mouse lives |
|Rough strain + |Mouse dies |
|heat-killed smooth strain| |

2 Chromosomes were known to be composed of:

1 Protein – more complex – 20 amino acids – therefore they believed it to be the genetic material

2 DNA

3 Oswald Avery continued Griffith’s experiments

1 separated the different components of the heat-killed smooth Streptococcus pneumonia into the 4 major macromolecules: polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.

2 mixed each component separately with the rough Streptococcus pneumonia and injected each into mice.

3 Nucleic acid was the lethal mixture

4

|Inject: |Outcome: |
|Rough strain + lipids |Mouse lives |
|Rough strain + carbs |Mouse lives |
|Rough strain + proteins |Mouse lives |
|Rough strain + nucleic |Mouse dies!! |
|acid | |

5 So is it DNA or RNA?

6 He treated the nucleic acid with an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA (RNase), added it to the Rough Streptococcus pneumonia and it killed the mice…DNA was it!!

|Inject: |Outcome: |
|Rough strain + nucleic |Mouse dies!! |
|acid + RNase | |

4 Hershey and Chase experiment – 1952 – confirmed DNA to be hereditary material.

1 Studied T2 bacteriophages

1 bacteriophages (bacteria eaters) are bacterial viruses – made of protein and DNA

2 They knew the T2 could take over bacterial cells, they wanted to confirm that is was DNA doing this and not protein.

3 The experiment (Fig. 10.1AB):

1 Grew phage in different radioactive elements

2 radioactive Sufur to label protein (S only in the proteins), radioactive phosphorous to label DNA (phosphorus only found in the DNA).

3 use phage to infect bacteria (E. coli)

4 blend to dislodge any phage material stuck to outside of cell

5 centrifuge cells down and look for radioactivity in the cells

6 phage with labeled DNA resulted in radioactive cells. Thus, DNA was...

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