This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Cellular Respiration Essay

1628 words - 7 pages

Cellular Respiration
Introduction
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process in which the energy in sunlight is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose (C6H12O6) for later use.

Carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose and water is oxidized. Oxidation is the loss of an electron or hydrogen atom. Reduction is the gain of an electron or hydrogen atom. Oxidation reactions release energy and reduction reactions store energy in chemical bonds.
What is Cellular Respiration?
Cellular respiration allows organisms to use (release) the energy stored in glucose. The energy in glucose is first used to produce ATP. Cells use ATP to supply their energy needs. Cellular respiration is therefore a ...view middle of the document...

Two hydrogen atoms are removed by NAD+ forming 2 NADH (see diagram).
Additional phosphorylation results in intermediate 3-carbon molecules with 2 phosphate groups.
Four ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. Recall that substrate-level phosphorylation is the production of ATP using energy from other high-energy compounds but without the use of the electron transport system in the mitochondria.

The net yield of ATP in glycolysis is 2 for each glucose molecule (2 are used but 4 are produced).

Some bacteria have alternative energy-producing reactions. Two of these are the pentose phosphate pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.
Formation of Acetyl CoA
Pyruvate produced by glycolysis (see above) enters the mitochondrion and is converted to acetyl CoA by the reaction below. The remainder of the reactions of cellular respiration occur in the mitochondrion.
pyruvate (C3) ® acetyl CoA (C2) + CO2
During this step, NADH is produced from NAD+ + 2H (oxidation).
This step must occur twice for each glucose molecule because each glucose molecule produces two pyruvate molecules in glycolysis (above).
The two-carbon compound produced is attached to Coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA.

Krebs Cycle
The Krebs cycle can be summarized by either of the diagrams below. The diagram below occurs twice, once for each acetyl CoA.

When acetyl CoA attaches to a C4 molecule in the Krebs cycle, the Coenzyme A is released.
Two acetyl CoA molecules are consumed to produce 4 CO2, 2ATP, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2. The ATP molecules are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.
The diagram below also summarizes the Krebs Cycle.

Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Mitochondrion structure
The inner membrane forms folds called cristae. These folds contain the carriers of the electron transport system.
Acetyl CoA formation and the Krebs cycle occur in the inner space called the matrix.
The space outside the inner membrane is the intermembrane space. The electron transport system pumps hydrogen ions (H+) into this space for oxidative phosphorylation.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The electron transport system is found in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of eucaryotes and in the plasma membrane of procaryotes. It consists of a series of carrier molecules which pass electrons from a high-energy compound to a final low-energy electron acceptor. Energy is released during these oxidation-reduction reactions to produce ATP.
The discussion below applies to the mitochondria of eucaryotes.
NADH or FADH2 bring electrons to the electron transport system in the mitochondria.
The system contains membrane-bound electron carriers that pass electrons from one to another. When a carrier reduces another, some of the energy that is released as a result of that reduction is used to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane into the intermembrane space. The remaining energy is used to reduce the next carrier.
As a result of the electron transport...

Other Papers Like Cellular Respiration - Essay

Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration Essay

531 words - 3 pages Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and Aerobic Cellular Respiration Emily Satterstrom AIU student | Photosynthesis | Aerobic Cellular Respiration | Full balanced equation | 6CO2+6H2O+light energy→C6H12O6+6O2 | C6H12O6+6O2→6CO2+6H2O +ATP | Reactants | Carbon Dioxide, Water, and light energy | Glucose and Oxygen | Products | Glucose and Oxygen | Carbon Dioxide, Water, and ATP | Is this reaction

Bio Study Questions Essay

5703 words - 23 pages it happen)? If a cell is respiring aerobically and is using glucose as an energy source, the ultimate fate of each of the 6 carbon atoms in a glucose molecule that begins the aerobic pathway will be that they are separated into two molecules. These two molecules will be of three-carbon compound pyruvate. This occurs in cellular respiration in the glycolysis step. This is the first step in cellular respiration. 24. Where are the enzymes

Microbiology

4585 words - 19 pages . . pH . temperature . salt concentration . inhibitors 40. Why is glucose such an important molecule for organisms? . Basic food of cell 41. Compare the energy yield (ATP) of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. . See attachment 42. For each step in cellular respiration, list the reagents, the products and location where they occur. 43. Aerobic: respiration with oxygen present (requires 3

Lung Compliance and It's Diseases

2361 words - 10 pages Pathophysiology essay Lung compliance and its disorders Philippe Wöllenstein Study group 3052; Topic No.62 29.04.2015 ------------------------------------------------- Abstract ------------------------------------------------- The essay comprises an introduction explaining the term pulmonary compliance. The next section includes a definition and characteristics of the group of diseases-restrictive pulmonary disorders. Further on a

Hox Gene and Cambrian Explosion

4945 words - 20 pages Session 1.3: The Evolution of Cellular Life Exam review view in a separate window In this session we focus on the natural history of cells and the evolutionary timelines of their appearance.  The modern phylogenetic classification of domains is used to categorize the different types of cells: bacteria, archea, and eukarya.  The names of periods and organisms and certain dates are often helpful in remembering or understanding events that

Freedom And Responsibility

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are

Holidays In Albania

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are

A Heart Of Darkness

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

Related Essays

Cellular Respiration Essay

611 words - 3 pages Cellular Respiration Lab Report Purpose The purpose of this lab was to find out which substance, molasses, sucrose, or the items of choice. This experiment was done to help the students understand which substance the yeast could perform cellular respiration in and why it could depending on it’s structure and bonds. From this experiment students should be able to better understand cellular respiration and why it occurs, like how it happens and

Cellular Respiration Essay

650 words - 3 pages CELLULAR RESPIRATION • or energy metabolism refers to the chemical breakdown of nutrients by the cell to produce energy needed by the body • the energy released from the breakdown of nutrients is not directly used by the body but used to synthesize ATP • an opposite process of photosynthesis • breaking down of carbohydrates in order to produce ATP molecules, represented as: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP • divided into four individual

Cellular Respiration Essay

754 words - 4 pages Cellular Respiration Class, today we are going to be talking about a really cool way your body breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide and water! First, let’s understand what exactly this means. This process is called Cellular Respiration. This happens when food molecules, such as glucose (sugar in your body) breaks down into carbon dioxide, which is an odorless gas in the air, and water. And I’m sure you all know what water is, correct

Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration Essay

597 words - 3 pages Examine the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. o   Write the general formula for photosynthesis. o   Write the general formula for cellular respiration. o Explain the relationship between the two that should be obvious from the formulas. Examine the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. o   Write the general formula for photosynthesis. o   Write the general formula for cellular