MBA IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
MBBP2133 ( Project Quality Assurance, Human Resources & Communication Management
Name : Sarah Saud Fatmi
Student ID# : 11046509
Semester : 1
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This needs to be done so that the problem can be solved completely the first time around, rather than just addressing part of it and having the problem run on and on. This process is called “Cause and Effect Analysis”.
Professor Kaoru Ishikawa created Cause and Effect Analysis in the 1960s. The technique uses a diagram-based approach for thinking through all of the possible causes of a problem. This helps you to carry out a thorough analysis of the situation. There are four steps to using the tool. 
1. Identifying the problem and/or goals
2. Brainstorming; Work out the major factors involved
3. Chart Analysis; Identify possible causes
4. Analyse your diagram & develop an action plan
Cause and Effect Analysis can be used for both; looking forward to plan a chain of events, or looking backward to better understand one.
Cause and Effect: Looking Back
Cause and Effect analysis is typically used to figure out why something went wrong. However, it can also help you to replicate a positive outcome through the thorough results from the tool.
Cause and Effect: Planning for the Future
Although, “Cause and Effect Analysis” is classically used to understand previous events (usually to avoid repetition), it can also be used to help plan for the future. Rather than attempting to explain an existing outcome, it is possible to set up a hoped-for outcome, and then analyse the elements required to bring the outcome about. Once you have a clear idea of what’s needed, it’s much easier to create a plan of action that is likely to succeed.
Because the process of analysis involves breaking down the whole into a set of individual parts, you can also use the chart created through Cause and Effect Analysis to determine who should take responsibility for which aspects of the project. If you spent a good deal of time on the process, you may even have the start of a to-do list for various members of the project team. 
Cause and Effect Analysis gives you a useful way of doing this. This diagram-based technique, which combines Brainstorming with a type of Mind Map, pushes you to consider all possible causes of a problem, rather than just the ones that are most obvious.
General principles 
• The primary aim of root cause analysis is: to identify the factors that resulted in the nature, the magnitude, the location, and the timing of the harmful outcomes (consequences) of one or more past events; to determine what behaviours, actions, inactions, or conditions need to be changed; to prevent recurrence of similar harmful outcomes; and to identify lessons that may promote the achievement of better consequences. ("Success" is defined as the near-certain prevention of recurrence.)
• To be effective, root cause analysis must be performed systematically, usually as part of an investigation, with conclusions and root causes that are identified backed up by documented evidence. A team effort is typically required.
• There may be more than...