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Caso Southwest Airlines Essay

2901 words - 12 pages

Caso Southwest Airlines

La Southwest Airlines
La Southwest Airlines ha dimostrato la chiara superiorità della sua strategia che le
ha consentito di essere l’unica compagnia aerea americana:
1. che ha avuto profitti per tutti gli anni ‘90;
2. che ha un titolo azionario di grande successo (crescita del 21.755% tra 1972 e
1992);
3. che ha vinto la “triple crown” (premio per la soddisfazione del cliente)
ripetutamente (cfr.tabella a).
Recentemente sia Continental che United Airlines hanno cercato di imitare la
strategia di Southwest Airlines per migliorare la loro redditività.

Le radici del successo
Il successo di Southwest Airlines può essere ricondotto alla sua capacità di ...view middle of the document...

La strategia fondamentale di Southwest Airlines, come viene descritta dal
management, è di competere contro le autovetture. Southwest si orienta a
viaggiatori che vogliono un servizio amichevole, affidabile, a basso costo per tratte
limitate (in genere meno di 90 minuti). Il CEO di Southwest, Herb Kelleher, è
solito affermare che il successo della sua compagnia deriva dal fatto che il suo
servizio amichevole, affidabile e a basso costo rappresenta per il cliente “PIÙ a
MENO, e NON MENO a MENO” (tabella a).

Soddisfazione dei clienti
Southwest ha vinto la “triple crown” (minor numero di voli in ritardo, minor numero di
bagagli smarriti, minor numero di lamentele) per tre anni di seguito (36 edizioni
consecutive. Nessun concorrente ha mai vinto questo premio per più di un periodo.
quando Southwest entra in un nuovo mercato, i passaggi aerei di quel mercato crescono in
media del 30%

Tabella A La soddisfazione dei clienti
Fornire “più a meno” richiede una maggiore rapidità di “riattrezzaggio” (riduzione
dei tempi morti di parcheggio dell’aereo al gate), standardizzazione, rispetto degli
orari, selezione e formazione intensa del personale e limitazione dei servizi ad
aeroporti non congestionati.
Southwest rispetta con grande attenzione queste guideline. Altri concorrenti (ad
esempio People Express) si sono accorti e si accorgono solo di alcune di questi
aspetti del servizio. Ma ancora più importante è la consapevolezza del management
di Southwest che la crescita della compagnia è limitata dal tasso con il quale può
assumere e formare nuove persone che siano coerenti con la sua cultura.

Le persone alla Southwest Airlines
Uno dei costi più rilevanti per una compagnia aerea è il costo del personale (tabella
b). Secondo Bob Crandall, CEO della American Airlines, “Non c’è nessun settore
nel quale il lavoro sia una parte così importante del totale dei costi”.
American Delta Southwest USAir Continental
Costo per posto disponibile/ miglia (in
cent.) 8.93 9.44 7.03 10.83 8.39
Stipendi e benefit per posto
disponibile /miglia (in cent.) 3.07 3.58 2.35 4.18 1.93
Stipendi in percentuale sulle spese
Totali 34.34 37.94 29.78 37.7 23.56
Carburante in percentuale sulle spese
Totali 13.63 12.75 14.45 10.99 14.93
Manutenzione in percentuale sulle
spese totali 5.7 - 7.3 6.4 -
Tabella B Dati comparativi sulle principali compagnie aeree americane
(1992)
Gran parte dei dipendenti di Southwest Airlines sono direttamente coinvolti nel
portare i passeggeri dalla partenza alla destinazione in qualità di personale di
check-in, trasporto bagagli, assistenti di volo, piloti. In questo ruolo ognuno di essi
ha un impatto diretto non solo sui costi, ma anche sull’esperienza dei passeggeri
che determina la loro soddisfazione. Lo stesso input che è responsabile di una
grande parte dei costi è pure responsabile della differenziazione del servizio di
Southwest. Southwest paga i suoi dipendenti (che sono sindacalizzati per l’84%) al...

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