Case Study About Acute Glomerulonephritis

4678 words - 19 pages

Nueva Ecija Doctors’ Colleges, Inc.
Cagayan Valley Road, Cabanatuan City
College of Medical Technology

Acute Glomerulonephritis

In partial fulfillment of RLE


Valdez, Shiela Mae A.
Alonzo, Krizzel Marie M.
Sevilla, Rica Allona N.
Flores, Ma. Cristina D.
Mangulabnan, Kimberly M.

March 2015

Glomerulonephritis literally means inflammation of the glomerulus or the clusters of microscopic blood vessels in the kidney that filter wastes and fluids from the blood. It includes a number of disorders that affect the structure and function of the glomerulus without any prominent inflammation. It is therefore also referred to as glomerular ...view middle of the document...

Infections with other types of bacteria, such as staphylococcus and pneumococcus, viral infections, such as chickenpox, and parasitic infections, such as malaria, can also result in acute glomerulonephritis. Acute glomerulonephritis that results from any of these infections is called postinfectious glomerulonephritis.
Acute glomerulonephritis may also be caused by noninfectious disorders, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, immunoglobulin A–associated vasculitis (formerly, Henoch-Schönlein purpura), systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), cryoglobulinemia, Goodpasture syndrome, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly, Wegener granulomatosis). Acute glomerulonephritis that develops into rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis most often results from conditions that involve an abnormal immune reaction.
Often, chronic glomerulonephritis seems to result from some of the same conditions that cause acute glomerulonephritis, such as IgA nephropathy or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Sometimes, acute glomerulonephritis does not resolve and instead becomes long lasting (chronic). Occasionally, chronic glomerulonephritis is caused by hereditary nephritis, an inherited genetic disorder. In many people, the cause of chronic glomerulonephritis cannot be identified. (Navin Jaipaul, MD, MHS, July 2013)
The global incidence of acute PSGN was estimated at 472,000 cases per year, 456,000 of which occurred in less developed countries. Glomerulonephritis represents 10- 15% of glomerular diseases variable incidences has been reported due in part to the subclinical nature of the disease in more than one half the affected population. Despite sporadic outbreak, incidence of streptococcal glomerulonephritis has fallen over the last few decades. Most cases occur in patients aged 5-15 years only 10% occur in patients older than 40 years. In the Philippines there are 2346281 who had acute glomerulonephritis as of 2010.
Clinically, all (100%) children had facial puffiness and/or pedal edema and macroscopic hematuria (frank and/or cola colored urine). Other main clinical features were hypertension (n = 80, 86.9%), fever (n = 60, 65.2%), headache (n = 58, 63.0%) and oliguria (n = 50, 54.3%) followed by pyodermas, vomiting, burning micturition, painful abdomen, sore throat, altered sensorium, convulsions and shortness of breath.
Kidney diseases, especially End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), are already the 7 th leading cause of death among the Filipinos. One Filipino develops chronic renal failure every hour or about 120 Filipinos per million populations per year. More than 5,000 Filipino patients are presently undergoing dialysis and approximately 1.1 million people worldwide are on renal replacement therapy. (Avner, Harmon, Brouhard, Travis. 1992)
This study aims to incorporate understanding of the disease – acute glomerulonephritis and to enhance our knowledge, skills, and attitudes as...

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