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Case Singapore Airlines Spanish Essay

4787 words - 20 pages

El difícil equilibrio de Singapore Airlines
Por Loizos Heracleous & Jochen Wirtz

La principal compañía aérea de Asia aplica con éxito una doble estrategia: ofrece un servicio de primer orden y unos precios muy ventajosos.
Singapore Airlines (SIA) tiene alguna cosa especial. Durante las últimas cuatro décadas, se ha ganado una reputación estelar en el muy competitivo negocio de la aviación comercial porque ofrece a sus clientes un servicio de alta calidad y domina los segmentos de viajes de negocios. SEA ha obtenido el galardón World Best Airline de Condé Nast Traveler veintiuna de las veintidós veces que se ha concedido y tres veces el premio Airline of the Year de Skytrax ...view middle of the document...

No obstante, las dobles estrategias son cada vez más imprescindibles. La recesión de estos años ha disparado la demanda de productos y servicios ventajosos, especialmente en los países desarrollados, de manera que incluso las empresas que ofrecen servicios de primera calidad se tienen que inventar la manera de aprovechar las oportunidades en la franja media y baja del mercado. Por otra parte, las multinacionales tienen que hacer frente a la competencia de unos rivales (muchos de ellos de mercados emergentes) que hacen uso de las nuevas tecnologías y de los modelos de negocio con el fin de proporcionar ofertas bastantes buenas a precios atractivos. Las compañías dominantes pueden responder recortando tarifas o diferenciando todavía más los productos y servicios, aunque a menudo es una batalla perdida. Las guerras de precios acostumbran a doler más en los líderes que en los aspirantes, y resulta difícil mantener una diferenciación incesante. A menudo, la única opción consiste en adoptar una doble estrategia.
Nuestra investigación sugiere que las dobles estrategias tienen mejor acogida en los países asiáticos. Muchos ejecutivos occidentales creen, por ejemplo, que los costes más económicos y la diferenciación, la globalización y la localización o el tamaño y la agilidad son términos esencialmente contradictorios que no se pueden aunar. No obstante, SIA y otras empresas como Banyan Tree, Haier, Samsung y Toyota funcionan como si la dualidad estuviera formada de elementos opuestos integrados en un todo, es decir, como si se complementaran, en lugar de contradecirse entre ellos. Esta manera de pensar es parte integral del pensamiento oriental; el concepto del yin y el yang de la filosofía taoísta, por ejemplo, abraza esta idea. Sin duda, el hecho de aplicar dos estrategias dará lugar a paradojas de organización, pero los ejecutivos de los mercados asiáticos tienden a darse cuenta que las visiones opuestas presentan un panorama completo y desarrollan políticas para gestionar ambas perspectivas.
Ninguna empresa aplica una doble estrategia mejor que SIA. Desde que se fundó la aerolínea en 1972, su estado financiero ha sido siempre positivo y nunca ha presentado pérdidas anuales. Casi no tiene deuda y, salvo la capitalización inicial, ha financiado su crecimiento con la retención de beneficios sin dejar de pagar dividendos.
Hemos estudiando la compañía SIA en los últimos nueve años y hemos observado que lleva a cabo una doble estrategia que integra cuatro paradojas: proporcionar excelencia en el servicio a un coste asequible, innovar tanto en un sistema centralizado como en uno de descentralizado, ser líder en tecnología y aplicar una estrategia de seguidor, y alcanzar la estandarización y la personalización de sus procesos. El sistema de auto-refuerzo de SIA es difícil de imitar, hecho que permite mantener una ventaja competitiva. Tal como veremos en las páginas siguientes, con el tiempo esta doble...

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